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History 

OF 

War Savings Campaign 

IN 

North Carolina 
1918 



HISTORY 



OF 



WAR SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



IN 



NORTH CAROLINA 



COMPILED FROM ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS 

IN OFFICE OF F. H. FRIES, STATE DIRECTOR, 

WINSTON-SALEM, N. C. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://archive.org/details/historyofwarsaviOOfries 



FOREWORD 



The great War Savings Campaign of 1918 is passed and it has 
been a success. The amount of $48,666,380.00, or $20.00 per capita, 
with the conditions and restrictions imposed, was never a possibility. 
On the basis of relative wealth or of savings deposits the allotment 
for North Carolina should have been about $10,000,000. The actual 
sales were $27,649,397.00, or nearly three times the equitable allot- 
ment. The State stands first in per capita sales among South At- 
lantic States and thirty-second in the list of all the States, so far re- 
ported. We have a right, therefore, to claim that the effort was a 
success. 

Not only was it a success in the relative amount of money paid 
into the United States Treasury, but it brought intimately together 
in the most perfect organization ever known in the State the finest 
body of workers from all political parties, of both sexes, and of all 
denominations, and the State knows itself and the people know and 
esteem one another as never before. 

The campaign was a success as manifested by the report of 
Savings Banks, over and above the amount of War Savings Stamps 
sold. The Savings Deposits of the State of North Carolina increased 
41 per cent between 1914 and 1919, largely due to the campaign of 
thrift promulgated in 1918. This campaign has borne good fruit, 
the seeds of which will continue to develop for generations to come. 

What has been accomplished was only made possible by the loyal 
and enthusiastic support and efficient efforts of the able force asso- 
ciated so pleasantly at the headquarters. 

To these workers, to the members of the executive committee and 
other committees, to the county chairmen and other county workers, 
to the Merchants' Association and the manufacturers, and to all 
workers and friends engaged in this campaign, I wish to extend most 
sincere acknowledgment and profound thanks. 



^£/^ytl2^* 



f\ State Director. 

o 







THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 
IN NORTH CAROLINA 



CHAPTER I 

Organization 

Appointment of State Director 

The War Savings Campaign of 1918 in North Carolina dates 
from November 9, 1917, which was the day on which Secretary of 
the Treasury W. G. McAdoo offered the State Directorship of War 
Savings to Col. F. H. Fries of Winston-Salem, N. C, President of 
the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, in a telegram in part as 
follows: "At this critical moment in the history of our country you 
will have an opportunity to render patriotic service of great value, 
and I shall greatly appreciate your making whatever sacrifice is 
necessary to render assistance in this work." On the following day 
Colonel Fries replied: "Your message . . . finds me willing to 
serve the government and you in any way that I can within the 
limitations of my health." A few days later, on the fifteenth and 
sixteenth of November, Colonel Fries attended in Washington a con- 
ference of State Directors with Secretary McAdoo and the National 
War Savings Committee, of which Mr. Frank A. Vanderlip, Presi- 
dent of the National City Bank of New York, was Chairman. At 
this conference tentative plans for the conduct of the campaign in 
the several States was laid before the State Directors for their 
guidance. 

First State-Wide Meeting 

The campaign in North Carolina was actually launched at 
a State-wide meeting held in Winston-Salem on November 24, 1917, and 
composed of the following representative men and women : Gov. T. W. 
Bickett, Raleigh ; Parker Anderson, Washington, D. C. ; J. W. Can- 
non, Concord; H. G. Chatham, Winston-Salem; W. B. Cooper, Wil- 
mington; J. Elwood Cox, High Point; A. H. Eller, Col. F. H. Fries, 
H. E. Fries and J. W. Fries, Winston-Salem; Major W. A. Graham, 
Commissioner of Agriculture, Raleigh ; James A. Gray, Jr., and Mayor 
R. W. Gorrell, Winston-Salem; George A. Holderness, Tarboro; 
W. A. Hunt, Secretary North Carolina Bankers' Association, Hen- 
derson; Dr. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction, and 
Mrs. Clarence Johnson, President North Carolina Federation of 
Women's Clubs, Raleigh; R. R. King, Greensboro; Mrs. J. L. Lud- 



6 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

low, Clement Manly, Thomas Maslin, and J. Frank Morris, Presi- 
dent North Carolina Retail Merchants' Association, Winston-Salem; 
T. S. Morrison, Asheville; Walter Murphy, Salisbury; Col. W. H. 
Osborne, Greensboro; Senator Lee S. Overman, Washington, D. C. ; 
Judge Jeter C. Pritchard, Asheville; Mrs. Eugene Reilly, Charlotte; 
C. A. Reynolds, Mrs. R. J. Reynolds, Chairman of the Women's 
Liberty Loan Committee, W. N. Reynolds and Mrs. W. N. Rey- 
nolds, Winston-Salem; R. H. Ricks, Rocky Mount; Wescott Rober- 
son, High Point; Dr. Howard E. Rondthaler, President of Salem 
College, Winston-Salem ; Capt. G. T. Roth, Elkin ;_ W. C. Ruffin, 
Mayodan; R. O. Self, Winston-Salem; M. L. Shipman, Commis- 
sioner of Labor and Printing, Raleigh; Morgan B. Speer, Charlotte; 
Gilbert T. Stephenson, Winston-Salem; R. G. Vaughan, Greensboro; 
and A. D. Watts, Collector of Internal Revenue, Statesville. The 
keynote of the several addresses was the opportunity that the War 
Savings Campaign would give to teach thrift and arouse patriotism. 
Governor Bickett said that, if no other good came out of the cam- 
paign, the people would be educated to the necessity and righteousness 
of the war. 

Meeting- of Editors 

This meeting of representative citizens was followed the next 
day, November 25th, by a meeting of the editors of the State, held 
in Winston-Salem and attended by the following newspaper men : 
Parker Anderson, Greensboro Daily News; E. G. Atkins, Gastonia 
Gazette ; R. E. Carmichael, Twin-City Daily Sentinel ; A. W. Cline, N. 
L. Cranford and M. R. Dunnagan, Winston-Salem Journal; H. R. 
Dwire, Twin-City Sentinel ; W. C. Hammer, Asheboro Courier ; Wade 
H. Harris, Charlotte Observer; J. Paul Leonard, North Carolina 
Trade Magazine ; Santford Martin, President of North Carolina Press 
Association and Editor of Winston-Salem Journal; Chas. H. Mebane, 
Catawba News; John A. Park, Raleigh Evening Times; Joe 
Robertson, Madison Messenger; W. E. Rutledge, Yadkin Ripple; 
E. L. Starr, Publicity Department of Wachovia Bank and Trust Com- 
pany, and C. Frank Stroud, Davie Record. The newspaper men 
present pledged their hearty co-operation in the campaign, Mr. Sant- 
ford Martin, President of the State Press Association, saying, "Here 
we are; use us." 

The purpose of both these meetings was not to announce a definite 
plan of campaign but, rather, to acquaint the leaders of the State's 
thought and action with the general features of the task involved 
in the campaign. 

State Organization 

The first step in the campaign was the creation of a State or- 
ganization and then of one hundred separate county organizations. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 7 

The State Director at once opened headquarters in the Wachovia 
Bank and Trust Company building and put in charge Mr. R. O. 
Self in the capacity of Executive Secretary to the State Director 
On December 1 the appointment by Secretary McAdoo of Mr. W. B. 
Drake, Jr., President of the North Carolina Bankers' Association, as 
Vice-Director, was announced. And on December 9 the appointment 
of the following State Executive Committee by Secretary McAdoo, 
upon the recommendation of the State Director, was announced : 
Gov. T. W. Bickett, Raleigh; J. W. Bailey, Raleigh; D. H. 
Blair, Winston-Salem; Joseph G. Brown, Chairman Liberty Loan 
Committee, Raleigh; Judge Stephen' C. Bragaw, Washington, N. C. ; 
Judge James E. Boyd, Greensboro ; J. W. Cannon, Concord ; H. G. 
Chatham, Winston-Salem; Judge H. G. Connor, Wilson; D. Y. 
Cooper, Henderson; J. Elwood Cox, High Point; R. Theodore David- 
son, Asheville; R. A. Doughton, Sparta; W. B. Drake, Jr., Raleigh; 
Carl Duncan, Raleigh; A. H. Eller, Winston-Salem; W. A. Erwin, 
Durham ; H. E. Fries, Winston-Salem ; Lieutenant-Governor O. Max 
Gardner, Shelby; Dr. E. K. Graham, President of the University of 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Major W. A. Graham, Commissioner 
of Agriculture, Raleigh ; James A. Gray, Winston-Salem ; J. 
Bryan Grimes, Secretary of State, Raleigh ; C. J. Harris, Sylva ; Dr. 
D. H. Hill, Chairman of Council of Defense, Raleigh ; George A. 
Holderness, Tarboro ; Eugene Holt, Burlington ; Dr. J. Y. Joyner, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Raleigh ; R. R. King, Greens- 
boro ; B. R. Lacy, State Treasurer, Raleigh ; Clement Manly, Winston- 
Salem; Judge J. S. Manning, Attorney General, Raleigh; Santford 
Martin, Raleigh; Cameron Morrison, Charlotte; T. S. Morrison, 
Asheville ; A. W. McLean, Lumberton ; Hugh McRae, Wilmington ; 
Walter Murphy, Salisbury; W. C. Newland, Lenoir; Nathan O'Berry, 
Goldsboro; Col. W. H. Osborne, Greensboro; Robert N. Page, Biscoe; 
Dr. J. M. Parrot, Kinston ; Dr. Clarence Poe, Raleigh ; James H. Pou, 
Raleigh; Judge J. C. Pritchard, Asheville; Mrs*. J. Eugene Reilly, 
Charlotte; R. H. Ricks, Rocky Mount; C. A. Reynolds, Mrs. R. J. 
Reynolds, and W. N. Reynolds, Winston-Salem; Wescott Roberson, 
High Point; Dr. Howard Rondthaler, Winston-Salem; W. C. Ruffin, 
Mayodan ; R. O. Self, Winston-Salem ; M. L. Shipman, Commissioner 
of Labor and Printing, Raleigh; Morgan B. Speer, Charlotte; Dr. 
James Sprunt, Wilmington; Gilbert T. Stephenson, Winston-Salem; 
A. D. Watts, Statesville; Col. W. P. Wood, State Auditor, Raleigh; 
and J. R. Young, Commissioner of Insurance, Raleigh. 

On February 22, 1918, the appointment of Hon. Robert N. 
Page, Biscoe, as a Vice-Director was announced. 

In addition to the two Vice-Directors and the Executive Com- 
mittee there was a Central Committee of local men, named by the 
State Director himself, upon whom he might call at a moment's 



8 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

notice. They were Messrs. J. K. Norfleet, Chairman, H. G. Chatham, 
H. E. Fries, W. N. Reynolds, and H. F. Shafrner. 

In May the State Director divided the State into several districts 
and named a chairman of each district, whose duty it was to visit 
and help the County Chairmen of his district get ready for the June 
drive. The District Chairmen were William Burckel, Asheville; Dr. 
Chas. E. Reynal, Statesville ; J. K. Norfleet and O. B. Eaton, Winston- 
Salem; and D. C. Barnes, Murfreesboro. 

State Headquarters 

Early in January, 1918, the State Headquarters were moved 
from the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company building to more 
commodious quarters and thereafter occupied the entire first floor of 
one of the Jacobs buildings on Main street, Winston-Salem. Mr. 
Gilbert T. Stephenson, of the law firm of Hastings, Stephenson and 
Whicker, Winston-Salem, became a member of the Headquarters staff 
on November 24, 1917, as field representative of the War Savings 
Committee. Mr. E. L. Starr became Publicity Manager, dividing 
his time between the War Savings Committee and the Wachovia Bank 
and Trust Company's Publicity Department. By the middle of Jan- 
uary it was found that the publicity work would require at least 
one man's entire time. Mr. Starr resigned in order to give his entire 
time to the Bank, and Mr. J. O. Cobb, of Leak-Cobb Company, 
Winston-Salem, became Publicity Manager. On the fourth of 
February the State Board of Health granted a leave of absence to 
Miss Kate M. Herring of Raleigh, who came to the State Head- 
quarters to take charge of the newspaper publicity, Mr. Cobb re- 
maining in charge of the other branches of publicity. Mr. Cobb 
entered the aviation branch of the army the latter part of May and 
was succeeded as Advertising Manager by Mr. B. K. Milloway, head 
of the Publicity Department of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, 
which company gave the War Savings Committee the services of Mr. 
Milloway during the remaining six months of the campaign. 

The State Director in January secured Mr. R. G. Stockton of 
Winston-Salem as Director of Organization to have charge not only 
of the organization but also of the speakers' bureau and the sales 
agencies. Mr. Stockton entered the Judge Advocate's Department 
of the Army in June and his work was thereafter divided among the 
other members of the Headquarters staff. 

County Organization 

Even while the State organization was being perfected the county 
organizations had to go on apace. First, one hundred County Chair- 
men had to be named and each County Chairman had to have an 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 9 

organization. The State Director made diligent inquiry into the 
availability of men in each County for Chairman and, having determined 
the one most available, wired him a request to accept the chairman- 
ship. By December 7, he was able to announce chairmen for seventy- 
eight counties and on December 11 he announced chairmen for twelve 
more. Soon thereafter he was able to complete the list of one hun- 
dred chairmen. But scarcely a week after the list was completed did 
it remain unchanged. Some chairmen entered the military service, 
others left the county, and one, Mr. C. P. Matheson, of Alexan- 
der County, died. Only forty counties finished the campaign with 
the same chairmen with which they started. One ; 'of the coun- 
ties had as many as five chairmen, four as many as four, and thir- 
teen as many as three. In all one hundred and eighty-eight people 
acted as County Chairmen during the year. The following is a list 
of those who have served as County War Savings Chairmen during 
the campaign of 1918: 

County Chairman Address 

Alamance _.E. S. Parker, Jr Graham 

Lawrence S. Holt, Jr Burlington 

Alexander _ C. P. Matheson, deceased Taylorsville 

F. A. Sharpe _ Stoney Point 

Alleghany C. W. Higgins _ Sparta 

Eugene Transou ..._ Sparta 

Anson _...T. L. Caudle _ Wadesboro 

T. C. Cox Wadesboro 

Ashe C. M. Dickson Silas Creek 

W. R. Baugess Jefferson 

Avery _ _ R. W. Wall _ Newland 

Beaufort E. R. Mixon _ Washington 

Bertie ..._ _ C. W. Mitchell _ Aulander 

J. H. Matthews Windsor 

Bladen ..._ Byron Clark _ Elizabethtown 

Hector H. Clark Clarkton 

Brunswick Dr. E. G. Goodman Lanvale 

E. H. Cranmer _ Southport 

Burke _ _ J. F. McGimsey Morganton 

Charles Lane _ Morganton 

Buncombe Hiden Ramsey _ Asheville 

T. W. Raoul, Acting Asheville 

Cabarrus H. I. Woodhouse Concord 

Camden _R. C. Dozier South Mills 

Caldwell Jacob Seagle Lenoir 



10 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

County Chairman Address 

Carteret R. T. Wade Morehead City 

Claude Wheatley Beaufort 

W. A. Mace Beaufort 

Caswell _ _.R. T. Wilson Yanceyville 

Catawba J. D. Elliott _ Hickory 

A. K. Joy, Acting Hickory 

Chatham Leon T. Lane Pittsboro 

Cherokee J. B. Walker Murphy 

L. E. Bayless _ Murphy 

M. E. Cozad Andrews 

M. W. Bell Murphy 

Chowan _ Frank Wood Edenton 

M. L. Wright _... Edenton 

Clay L. M. Scroggs Brasstown 

Cleveland O. M. Mull Shelby 

O. Max Gardner Shelby 

Geo. A. Hoyle - Shelby 

Columbus J. A. Brown _ Chadbourn 

Craven T. A. Uzzell New Bern 

W. W. Griffin New Bern 

Cumberland John A. Oates Fayetteville 

W. M. Walker Fayetteville 

G. C. Trice Fayetteville 

Currituck Dr. W. H. Cowell Shawboro 

Davidson _ Col. G. F. Hankins Lexington 

W. L. Crawford Lexington 

Dare _ R. Bruce Etheridge Manteo 

Davie E. L. Gaither Mocksville 

Duplin H. McD. Williams Faison 

H. L. Stevens Warsaw 

Durham ..._ John Sprunt Hill Durham 

Edgecombe _ C. A. Johnson _ Tarboro 

Forsyth P. A. Gorrell Winston-Salem 

Franklin W. H. Yarborough, Jr Louisburg 

Gaston _John W. Carpenter Gastonia 

Geo. W. Wilson _ Gastonia 

Gates B. L. Banks, Jr Gatesville 

R. R. Taylor, Acting Gatesville 

Graham Earl Tathem Robbinsville 

Robah Gray _ Robbinsville 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 11 

County Chairman Address 

Granville Ben K. Lassiter _ Oxford 

John Webb Oxford 

J. R, Hall Oxford 

Greene _ J. T. Sugg Snow Hill 

F. W. Dixon Snow Hill 

Guilford T. R. Faust ...Greensboro 

Halifax Walter Daniel Weldon 

A. E. Akers Roanoke Rapids 

Harnett R. L. Godwin Dunn 

B. P. Gentry _ Lillington 

Haywood J. R. Boyd _ Waynesville 

Dr. G. D. Greene Waynesville 

S. H. Bushnell Waynesville 

Henderson Brownlow Jackson Hendersonville 

C. F. Bland Hendersonville 

Hertford John E. Vann Winton 

Hoke Julian W. McLaughlin Raeford 

J. T. Jerome, Acting Raeford 

Hyde : _ D. H. Carter Fairfield 

Charles Brim Swan Quarter 

A. B. Litchfield Swan Quarter 

G. M. Guthrie Swan Quarter 

Iredell L. B. Bristol Statesville 

Jackson _.C. C. Buchanan Sylva 

J. N. Wilson Cullowhee 

F. I. Watson Dillsboro 

Johnston _...T. S. Ragsdale Smithfield 

Jon,es _ C. T. Rogers Trenton 

Lee _ S. R. Hoyle Sanford 

J. E. Brinn Sanford 

Lenoir Dr. J. M. Parrott Kinston 

Lincoln J. B. Johnston Lincolnton 

D. C. Williams Lincolnton 

McDowell R. F. Burton Marion 

W. M. McNairy Marion 

D. T. Harris Marion 

C. W. McCall _ Marion 

Macon „ W. W. Jones Franklin 

M. D. Billings Franklin 

John H. Crosby _ Franklin 

C. C. Currier Franklin 

Madison John A. Hendricks Marshall 



12 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

County Chairman Address 

Martin „ Clayton Moore Williamston 

Mecklenburg Paul C. Whitlock Charlotte 

Edgar W. Pharr _ Charlotte 

C. G. Gover Charlotte 

Mitchell ..._ Chas. E. Green Bakersville 

J. B. Craigmiles Bakersville 

Montgomery W. B. Cochrane Mt. Gilead 

Moore ..._ Junius R. Page Aberdeen 

Nash _ Leon T. Vaughan _ Nashville 

New Hanover . ...Joseph W. Little Wilmington 

George Honnet Wilmington 

Northampton „ Garland E. Midyette _ _ Jackson 

Onsjow John W. Burton _. Jacksonville 

George Hurst Jacksonville 

F. W. K. Kellum Jacksonville 

Orange _ ~...S. Strudwick Hillsboro 

Pamlico W. J. Swann Stonewall 

Pasquotank ..._ W. G. Gaither, Jr Elizabeth City 

W. O. Saunders _ Elizabeth City 

J. B. Leigh Elizabeth City 

Pender _ J. T. Bland, Jr _ JBurgaw 

Dr. Ira W. Brown Burgaw 

Perquimans J. S. McNider Hertford 

Person E. G. Long Roxboro 

N. Lunsford „ Roxboro 

F. O. Carver Roxboro 

Pitt _.D. M. Clark Greenville 

R. H. Wright _ Greenville 

Polk _ „ W. T. Lindsay Tryon 

B. L. Ballinger Tryon 

Randolph T. Fletcher Bulla Asheboro 

E. L. Moffitt Asheboro 

Richmond ..._ Fred Bynum Rockingham 

Claude Gore Rockingham 

Robeson L. R. Varser JLumberton 

Rockingham Geo. W. Fraker Spray 

J. M. Sharpe Reidsville 

Rowan W. B. Strachan Salisbury 

Beverly Lake, Acting _ Salisbury 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 13 

County Chairman Address 

Rutherford _.W. M. Sherrod Caroleen 

R. E. Price Rutherfordton 

C. D. Geer Rutherfordton 

Sampson L. A. Bethune Clinton 

H. L. Boyd Clinton 

Scotland W. H. Weatherspoon Laurinburg 

Stanly E. L. Ford _ _ Albemarle 

W. L. Mann Albemarle 

Stokes .". _ Dr. W. C. Slate Walnut Cove 

O. N. Petree Walnut Cove 

Surry A. V. West _ Mt. Airy 

Swain T. D. Bryson Bryson City 

J. H. Harwood Bryson City 

S. W. Black Bryson City 

Transylvania R. H. Zachary Brevard 

H. N. Carrier Brevard 

J. S. Silversteen Brevard 

Tyrrell _ Dr. J. L. Spruill Columbia 

W. S. Carawan Columbia 

J. C. Griffin _ Columbia 

B. B. Jones Columbia 

W. M. Laughinghouse Columbia 

Union R. A. Morrow Monroe 

Vance W. A. Hunt Henderson 

Wake Dr. M. C. Horton Raleigh 

John A. Park Raleigh 

Warren Marmaduke Hawkins Ridgeway 

John Graham Warrenton 

Washington A. W. Swain Plymouth 

Van B. Martin, Acting Plymouth 

Z. V. Norman Plymouth 

Watauga B. B. Dougherty .Boone 

Wayne Thomas Norwood _ Goldsboro 

C. E. Wilkins Goldsboro 

Wilkes C. H. Cowles Wilkesboro 

Jos. M. Prevette Wilkesboro 

Wilson T. F. Pettus Wilson 

Yadkin J. T. Reece Yadkinville 

Yancey John A. Watson Burnsville 

J. M. Lyon Burnsville 

R. W. Wilson Burnsville 



14 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

Three types of County organization were adopted, one after the 
other. In the beginning of the campaign the County Chairman was 
asked to surround himself with an executive committee of ten leading 
citizens of the County, representing the several professions and busi- 
nesses. Gradually this type grew into the second which called for a 
sub-committee for each of the leading community interests. The 
county organization as finally completed and announced provided for 
a chairman, vice-chairman, secretary, publicity manager, executive 
agents who were, ex officio, the county superintendent of schools, city 
superintendent of schools (if there was a city or large town in the 
county), county farm demonstrator, county home demonstrator, and 
county health officer, an executive committee composed of the officers 
and chairmen of the several sub-committees, a committee on War Sav- 
ings Societies composed, as a rule, of a representative of each of the 
other sub-committees, finance committee, school committee, com- 
mittee on speakers, committee on churches, committee on fraternal 
orders and other organizations, women's committee, committee on 
banks, stores, and railroads, publicity committee, manufacturers' com- 
mittee, committee on colored people, and, in agricultural counties, a 
committee of farmers. A complete organization under this plan would 
take from seventy-five to a hundred and twenty-five of the leading 
men and women of the county. This form of organization was 
especially adapted to a campaign of education, inasmuch as there was 
a special committee to present thrift propaganda to each group of 
citizens. But the plan was not at all adapted to soliciting pledges. 
And when Mr. Vanderlip announced the June drive, it became neces- 
sary to effect a new organization in each County in the State. This, 
the third plan of organization, called for a County Chairman, a chair- 
man for each township in rural districts and for each ward in cities 
and towns, and canvassers for each neighborhood. This compact, 
geographical organization was adapted to canvassing and soliciting and 
reporting pledges. The second type of organization, which was but an 
outgrowth of the first, was the one under which the counties operated 
from the time of their organization in the early months of 1918 until 
the first of June. The third type was the one under which they 
operated the balance of the year. 

Organization of Colored People 

Although a committee on colored people, to be composed of the 
most representative colored men and women of the county, was pro- 
vided for in the plan of organization, the State Director felt that, if 
satisfactory results were to be obtained from them, it was necessary 
to give even more attention to this people, who constituted one-third 
of the population of the State. Consequently, on the 10th of January 
he called a conference of the colored leaders of the state. He had 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 15 

previously asked the chairman of each county that had a large colored 
population to provide for the expenses of at least one representative 
to the conference. This conference, held at the Slater Normal 
School, Winston-Salem, was attended by the following colored leaders 
of the State: Rev. H. L. Ashe and Dr. S. G. Atkins, Winston-Salem; 
R. J. Beverly, Wadesboro; N. T. Bond, Winston-Salem; R. W. 
Brown, Winston-Salem; Dr. S. C. Brown, Winton; T. J. Brown 
and Rev. G. O. Bullock, Winston-Salem; C. H. Bynum, Kinston; 
J. B. Christian and Rev. J. R. T. Christian, Winston-Salem; Bishop 
George W. Clinton, Charlotte; Rev. J. H. Curry, Winston-Salem; 

E. N. Dent, Louisburg; Rev. J. D. Diggs, Winston-Salem; H. M. 
Ellis, Lexington; Charles M. Epps, Greenville; Charles W. Foushee, 
Statesville; Dr. W. H. Goler, Salisbury; A. J. Griffin, High Point; 
L. E. Hall, Chadbourn; J. S. Hill, Winston-Salem; T. B. Hollaway, 
Kinston; Rev. S. J. Howie, Winston-Salem; T. S. Inborden, Bricks; 
Thomas Iverson, Dawson, Ga. ; Charles J. Jenkins, Hertford ; C. H. 
Johnson, Raeford; C. H. Jones and Dr. J. W. Jones, Winston-Salem; 
Dr. S. B. Jones, Greensboro; Rev. P. J. Joyce, Waughtown; W. H. 
Knuckles, Lumberton; Rev. R. O. Langford and H. Liston, Winston- 
Salem; Rev. F. T. Logan, Concord; Rev. J. T. Martin and Rev. P. 
A. McCorkle, Winston-Salem; Dr. H. L. McCrory, Charlotte; Dr. 
R. B. McRary, Lexington; John Merrick, Durham; H. R. Miller, 
Edenton; C. H. Moore, Greensboro; J. E. Morris, Maysville; W. H. 
Murphy and W. H. Neal, Winston-Salem; W. A. Patillo, Tarboro; 
Rev. N. D. Pearson and Rev. R. L. Peters, Winston-Salem; G. H. 
Pettie, Rural Hall; J. M. Poindexter, Rural Hall; Rev. W. W. 
Pope, Rev. H. S. Roberts, J. Jackson Sadler, W. S. Scales and S. A. 
Smith, Winston-Salem ; C. C. Spauldin, Durham ; E. G. Story. Wil- 
mington; Rev. R. S. Stout, Winston-Salem; Gretchen M. Teneych, 
Wadesboro; James Timlic, Winston-Salem; J. H. Turner, Winston- 
Salem; S. H. Vick, Wilson; Rev. J. W. Walker, Asheville; Rev. S. 

F. Wentz, Winston-Salem ; Sandy Williams, Winston-Salem ; and Col. 
James H. Young, Raleigh. At this conference Dr. R. B. McRary 
of Lexington was named Chairman and Dr. S. G. Atkins of Winston- 
Salem, Executive Secretary of the Colored War Savings Executive 
Committee of North Carolina. The committee named at that meet- 
ing was composed of Dr. S. G. Atkins, Winston-Salem; Dr. C. S. 
Brown, Winton; Bishop George W. Clinton, Charlotte; Dr. W. H. 
Goler, Salisbury; John Merrick, Durham; Dr. R. B. McRary, Lex- 
ington; E. G. Story, Wilmington; A. H. Vick, Wilson; and Col. 
J. H. Young, Raleigh. Provision was made also for opening a State 
Headquarters for the Colored Executive Committee at Winston-Salem 
to be under the charge of Dr. S. G. Atkins. The State or, rather, that 
portion of the State that had the bulk of the colored people was 
divided among the members of the Executive Committee, and each 
member assumed responsibility to get the War Savings work started 



16 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

and to keep it going among the colored people of a definite territory. 
In the County a separate colored chairman and committee were not 
named but, instead, the work was under the supervision of the white 
chairman and was promoted through his colored sub-committee. 

The Lumbermen 

The lumbermen of the State were organized from the National 
Headquarters with Mr. Nathan O'Berry of Goldsboro as Chairman. 
The lumbermen's organization was, therefore, a branch of the national 
rather than of the state organization and reports of its activities were 
made to the National Headquarters rather than to the State Director. 

The Retail Merchants 

In May, 1918, the Retail Merchants' Division of the War Sav- 
ings Committee was organized in North Carolina with Mr. John L. 
Gilmer of Winston-Salem as State Chairman and Mr. Frank E. 
Griffith of Winston-Salem, as Secretary. The Retail Merchants' 
Association of Winston-Salem furnished the offices and the services 
of the Secretary for the State Headquarters of the Retail Merchants' 
Division. . 

Mr. Gilmer divided the State into nine districts and named a 
chairman for each district. These district chairmen, together with 
such assistance as the State Headquarters could give them, visited the 
leading towns of the State and named a leading retail merchant as 
local chairman in each town. Two hundred and fifty-one cities and 
towns of the State were organized and five thousand two hundred and 
eighteen retail merchants of the State were authorized as agents to 
sell War Savings Stamps. The plan, in general, was to allot a 
definite amount in stamps to be sold by each merchant and to have 
each merchant, in turn, assign a definite allotment to each clerk. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 17 

CHAPTER II 

Early Activities of the Campaign 
The Teachers' Assembly of 1917 

The first effort to popularize War Savings was made at the 
Teachers' Assembly in session at Charlotte, November 28-30, 1917. 
Colonel Fries and Mr. Stephenson attended the several sessions of 
the assembly and presented War Savings to various groups and grades 
of teachers in short addresses, and on the last night of the assembly 
Colonel Fries presented War Savings to a mass meeting of teachers 
and citizens that filled the First Baptist Church of Charlotte. The 
teachers must have accepted the appeal as a patriotic privilege as well 
as a special obligation from the work they immediately started with 
their children. Dr. Joyner urged the teachers to observe North 
Carolina Day on December 14 as War Savings Day, but this, their 
first effort, was largely a failure because the weather all over North 
Carolina that day was so inclement that the observance of North 
Carolina Day could not be general or satisfactory. Announcement 
was made that the observance might be postponed till the next Friday, 
but on the 21st the weather was again quite as inclement. 

The Asheville Meeting 

At a mass meeting in Asheville on the evening of December 14, 
Hon. William Jennings Bryan gave considerable impetus to the 
campaign in the Western part of the State by an address in which 
he stressed particularly the advantage that the War Savings Campaign 
would be in teaching thrift, economy, and saving to the boys and 
girls of the State. This meeting was attended by representatives of 
several Western Counties and through these representatives and the 
press of Asheville War Savings was first brought to the attention of 
this section of the State. 

Christmas of 1917 

Effort was made to capitalize the Christmas of 1917 for War 
Savings. . The State Headquarters sent letters to about one thousand 
five hundred of the largest employers of labor of the State, asking 
them to use War Savings and Thrift Stamps for their Christmas gifts 
and in payment of their bonuses. Santa Claus was importuned through 
the press to put Stamps into the children's stockings. But only a few 
of the employers were, themselves, familiar enough with War Savings 
at this time to explain it to their employees and make them under- 



18 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

stand the value of War Savings Stamps. In the few instances in which 
Stamps were used as Christmas gifts or in the payment of bonuses, 
the results were disappointing. Some of the employees refused to 
receive the Stamps, others received them and threw them away in 
disdain, and still others received them and immediately sold them for 
a trifle. Many of these same employees were later made to see the 
value of the Stamps and became large investors in them. At the end 
of 1917 it could not be said that there was either popular knowledge 
of or enthusiasm for War Savings Stamps. 

Mr. Milton Harrison's Tour of the State 

The first telling stroke of the new year was the tour of the 
State by Mr. Milton W. Harrison, Secretary of the Savings Bank 
Section of the American Bankers' Association. Arriving in Winston- 
Salem on Sunday, January 6, he addressed a selected group of citizens 
in the Directors' Room of the Wachovia Bank and Trust Company 
on the seriousness of the War and the economic as well as patriotic 
value of the War Savings Stamp. Mr. Harrison and Mr. Gilbert 
T. Stephenson spent the following week in the Eastern part of the 
State, addressing mass meetings, conducting conferences with the com- 
mittees, and securing pledges to purchase War Savings Stamps. They 
visited Wilson, Wilmington, New Bern, Washington and Elizabeth 
City. Everywhere they drove home to the hearts of the people, as 
it had not been done before, that the War was a very serious thing, 
that it must and would come close home to the people of the State, 
and that the War Savings Stamp was the citizen's supreme oppor- 
tunity to do his part toward winning the war. Mr. Harrison in- 
augurated the custom of taking pledges to buy War Savings Stamps. 
At Wilson they had pledge-cards printed, and they solicited the busi- 
ness and professional men for large pledges. In one day's time they 
secured sixteen thousand dollars in pledges. They did the same at 
every place they visited, and the week's work netted the War Savings 
Committee about one hundred thousand dollars in pledges. More 
than that, it showed the people that the War Savings Campaign was 
not teaching the theory of thrift merely but was committing the 
people definitely to the policy of saving by having them pledge an 
amount that would necessitate the practice of economy. Mr. Har- 
rison, at the end of the week in the East, addressed a mass meeting 
in Raleigh and conducted several conferences which resulted in 
bringing War Savings to the attention of the people of the State even 
more forcibly than it had been before. 

Mr. Lasker's Visit 

While it is not following the orderly course of development of 
the War Savings Campaign, it is well here to mention the service 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 19 

that was rendered by other men who came into the State to help in 
the War Savings Campaign. The latter part of November, 1917, 
Mr. Harry W. Lasker of the Publicity Department of the National 
Headquarters spent a day at the State Headquarters in conference, 
and, as a guest of the local Rotary Club at a luncheon, made an address 
in which he impressed upon his audience and, through the publication 
of his address, upon the people of the State, the fact that the prime 
purpose of the Government in the War Savings Campaign was not 
to raise money but to save goods and labor and to teach thrift, point- 
ing out that, if the Government had wanted money chiefly, it would 
not have put the one thousand dollar limit upon the purchase of 
War Savings Stamps. 

Captain Fallon's Visit 

Beginning about the middle of February, Capt. David Fallon of 
the Australian Army spent three weeks touring the principal towns 
of the State. He went as far east as Washington and Tarboro and 
as far west as Asheville. Capt. Fallon was the first real War hero 
that had come to North Carolina. Before the War he had been a 
trained military man, having studied military tactics not only at home 
but abroad as well, including Germany, and at the outbreak of the 
War was a teacher in the Military Academy of New South Wales. 
Called into the War early, he had had a distinguished part in the 
first battles in France, had gone through the Campaign of Gallipoli, 
where he received his first wound, had seen service in a tank, in an 
aeroplane, and in the trenches, had been wounded fourteen times, and, 
after being awarded the Military Cross by King George, was at last hon- 
erably discharged from the army as being unfit for further service on 
account of having his right hand blown to pieces. Captain Fallon had a 
pleasing personality and was a thrilling speaker. His tour of the 
State was really a continuous ovation. He spoke two, three, and 
sometimes as many as five times a day at mass meetings, to groups 
of school children, colored people, and to factory employees. At these 
meetings he was accompanied by a representative of the State Head- 
quarters — first by Mr. Eaton and later by Mr. Stephenson — who un- 
dertook for War Savings to capitalize the enthusiasm he evoked. Pledges 
were taken after his address to mass meetings. At a meeting in Tar- 
boro Captain Fallon, this time unaccompanied by anybody from the 
State Headquarters, took fifty-one thousand dollars in pledges ; at two 
meetings in Catawba County — one at Newton and the other, im- 
mediately afterwards, at Hickory — he took fifty thousand dollars in 
pledges. While Captain Fallon did not undertake to discuss the mean- 
ing or importance of the War Savings Campaign in detail, he did 
bring the War home to the people. By his thrilling story and by 
showing them the marks of War upon his own body he made the 



20 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

people ready to hear and even eager to respond to the War Savings 
appeal. 

Lieutenant Choyce's Visit 

Another English soldier who toured North Carolina under the 
auspices of the State Headquarters and in the interest of War Savings 
was Lieutenant A. Newberry Choyce of the Lancaster Regiment, 
England. Lieutenant Choyce spent the last week of July in the 
State, touching the places that had not been touched by other out- 
side speakers. He was accompanied by Mr. J. H. Whicker from 
the State Headquarters and spent most of the week in the Eastern 
section, going as far east as Beaufort. Lieutenant Choyce, being, like 
Captain Fallon, a young man, well educated and of distinct literary 
tastes and ability and having survived horrible experiences of the 
War, stirred his audiences deeply and disposed them to respond to the 
War Savings appeal. 

Other Visitors 

In another connection mention will be made of the work of Mr. 
Charles W. Whitehair and of the several returned soldiers whom the 
War Savings Committee used later in the year. The State Head- 
quarters was favored during the year with visits from several repre- 
sentatives of the National Headquarters — notably Mr. C. J. Thorson 
of Colorado, Mr. Harry Palmer and Mr. Frank C. Builta of Ne- 
braska, who came with a wealth of practical suggestions drawn from 
the experiences of other States. 

The Meeting of Colored Workers 

One of the most significant State-wide meetings that was held 
the entire year was the meeting of colored people at Slater School on 
January 10th. The names of the colored people who attended have 
already been given. In the beginning of the campaign how to handle 
the colored people had been a problem; it was solved by this meeting. 
Representative colored men were assembled from every section of the 
State. The State Director laid upon them the responsibility of seeing 
that their people played citizen's parts in the War Savings Campaign. 
They appreciated the interest and confidence that the State Director 
had in them, and they left the conference with a vision of War Sav- 
ings both as a means of helping to win the War and as a means of 
uplifting the race. This was the message they carried back to their 
people. It is only fair to single out and mention particularly the 
excellent work of Dr. R. B. McRary of Lexington; Dr. S. G. At- 
kins, Executive Secretary; Dr. S. C. Brown of Winton; Prof. T. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 21 

S. Inborden, of Bricks; Rev. H. F. Woodhouse, of Elizabeth City — 
men who threw themselves heart and soul into the campaign. 

War Saving's Institute 

The War Savings Institute at Raleigh on February 12-13, 1918, 
was, in many respects, the most significant meeting of any kind that 
was ever held in the State. The suggestion of such an institute was 
made by Dr. J. Y. Joyner at a meeting of the Executive Committee 
at Winston-Salem on January 21. The idea was to have a two days' 
school of War Savings to instruct the leaders. On January 31 Gov- 
ernor Bickett issued a proclamation inviting all who were interested 
in the work to attend, but appointing as a special delegate every county 
superintendent of public instruction, every superintendent of a town 
or city school, every farm demonstration agent, every home demon- 
stration agent, one physician from each county in the State, to be named 
by the State Board of Health, and the chairman of the county executive 
committee of each political party in the State. He urged the county 
commissioners of the several counties to pay the expenses of the farm 
and home demonstration agents and of the physician, and the boards of 
education to pay the expenses of their representatives. Governor 
Bickett closed his proclamation with this warning, "Let it be borne 
in mind that this meeting is not to be a celebration, but, as its name 
implies, it is to be a school, and all who attend will be thoroughly 
taught just what they are expected to do and just how to do it." 
When the delegates — the War Savings pupils — assembled in the 
Auditorium in Raleigh on the afternoon of Tuesday, February 12, 
every one of the one hundred counties of the State was represented. 
There were present six hundred and seventy-three delegates. It was 
to a supreme degree an all-State meeting. There were present white 
people and colored people, men and women, Democrats, Republicans, 
Prohibitionists and Socialists, communicants of every religious faith, 
people from Cherokee to Currituck and from all the counties between. 
It took a special car to bring the Rockingham County delegation. The 
meeting on Tuesday afternoon was really a session of school. After 
the opening prayer and the address of welcome by Governor Bickett, 
Colonel Fries outlined the United States War Savings plan; Mr. Gil- 
bert T. Stephenson explained War Savings Stamps and War Sav- 
ings Societies ; Dr. J. Y. Joyner explained the relation of the schools 
to the campaign; and Col. Thomas B. McAdams, State Director of 
Virginia, explained the relation of the public to the campaign. The 
second session of the school was Wednesday morning. First, there 
were the group meetings — the school teachers, the club women, the 
home demonstration agents, the farm demonstration agents — in which 
the special work of each of these groups was outlined. Then there 
was the round-table discussion, led by Mr. Otto Marx, Federal 



22 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

Director of the War Savings Committee for this district. Mr. J. E. 
Kavanaugh, Director of Organization of the National Committee, dis- 
cussed the necessity and plan of organization in general, and Colonel 
Fries outlined the uniform plan of county organization that had been 
adopted and which has been discussed above. In closing messages 
Colonel Fries spoke of the aims; Dr. Joyner, of the duties; and Gov- 
ernor Bickett of the responsibilities of the War Savings Campaign. The 
high-water mark of the Institute was reached at the meeting in the 
Auditorium Tuesday night, without which meeting the after-effects 
of the Institute would not have been nearly as great as they were. 
Nearly three thousand five hundred people were assembled in the 
auditorium. After the preliminary exercises, Mr. James H. Pou in- 
troduced Mr. Charles W. Whitehair of New Jersey, a returned Y. M. 
C. A* worker, who had worked not only in France but in Egypt, and 
had crossed the danger zone thirteen times. Mr. Whitehair, having 
the gift of word-painting to an unusual degree, made his audience 
see and feel the actualities of the War as they had not done before. 
He held his audience spellbound for over an hour. At the end of 
his address the audience rose spontaneously and gave the speaker a re- 
markable ovation. Mr. Whitehair was followed by Judge J. H. 
Moyle, Third Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, who drove home 
with great force the absolute necessity of answering Mr. Whitehair's 
appeal in a practical way and showed how the Treasury of the United 
States must have the money called for in the War Savings plan. The 
two sessions of school had instructed the people in the War Savings 
plan and the addresses of Mr. Whitehair and Judge Moyle Tuesday 
night had aroused in them a determination to put the plan into practice. 
From this Institute dates the War Savings campaign as a popular, 
State-wide movement. These six hundred and seventy-three delegates 
went back into the hundred counties of the State as evangelists of 
patriotism and of War Savings. 

The Publicity Department 

On of the features of the War Savings Campaign was the work 
of the publicity department at the State Headquarters. The publicity 
work, in common with the work of every other department, was an 
evolution. In the beginning it was not considered necessary to have 
a director of publicity to give his entire time to the work and Mr. 
R. O. Self, in addition to his duties as* Executive Secretary to the 
State Director, issued the advertising matter and furnished special 
articles to the press of the State. Within a month after the beginning 
of the campaign, that is, by the 20th of December, the publicity work 
had grown so that additional help was required, and the State Director 
secured Mr. E. L. Starr, Publicity Manager of the Wachovia Bank 
and Trust Company, to become Publicity Manager of the War Sav- 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 23 

ings Committee and to divide his time between the Bank and War 
Savings. Within another month the demands of the work had in- 
creased to the point at which one's entire time was required. As Mr. 
Starr was unable to give his entire time to War Savings, he resigned 
and Mr. J. O. Cobb of Leak-Cobb Company, Winston-Salem, on 
January 25, 1918, became whole-time Publicity Manager. Shortly 
after this it was found that the publicity work naturally divided itself 
into two branches — one newspaper publicity and the other advertising. 
On the 4th of February Miss Kate M. Herring was secured from the 
State Board of Health, Raleigh, on leave, to become Director of 
Publicity, having charge of the newspaper articles on War Savings, 
and Mr. J. O. Cobb became Advertising Manager, having charge of 
all advertising matter created at or distributed by the State Head- 
quarters. One of Mr. Cobb's first tasks was to secure a Publicity 
Manager in each county to work with and be a part of the County 
War Savings Committee. Mr. Cobb remained with the State Head- 
quarters until he entered the aviation branch of the Army in April. 
He was succeeded as Advertising Manager by Mr. B. K. Milloway, 
who had been head of the Publicity Department of the R. J. Reynolds 
Tobacco Company, Winston-Salem, and who was granted a leave 
of absence on salary by that Company to serve the War Savings cause. 
Mr. Milloway gave his entire time to War Savings until October, 
when he was called back to the Reynolds Tobacco Company for part 
of his time, but he continued to the end of the campaign to serve 
the War Savings Committee whenever called. Miss Herring's work 
took two turns. One was the preparation of a special article on War 
Savings each day for the daily newspapers of the State and one each 
week for the weekly papers. The other was editing the War Savings 
News, a weekly news sheet, after the fashion of the University News 
Letter, sent to the War Savings committeemen, the newspapers, and 
to others who were interested and active in the cause. During the 
special drives in June and December she prepared plate matter on 
War Savings for the weekly newspapers of the State. Miss Herring 
brought the War Savings work of North Carolina among the colored 
people into national prominence by two articles on the subject — one 
published in The Outlook of New York on November 20, and the 
other in The South Atlantic Quarterly of January, 1919. In addition 
to her duties as Director of Publicity, she performed those of Director 
of War Savings Societies, which feature of the work will be discussed 
later. 

Field Work 

The field work of the War Savings Committee, to which Mr. 
Stephenson paid special attention, began at the very beginning of the 
campaign and lasted to the very end of it. The first task was to get 
a working organization in each county. It was found that these or- 



24 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OP 1918 

ganfzations could not be effected in every case by correspondence. As 
has already been stated, most of the County Chairmen were secured 
by wire and letter. But it was necessary to have a representative 
of the State Headquarters go to the several counties to complete the 
organization and acquaint the chairmen with their work. Besides Mr. 
Stephenson, Mr. O. B. Eaton and Mr. M. P. Traynor were engaged 
in this work during the early months of the year. One of them would 
go to a county, call a conference of the County Chairmen and a number 
of the leading men and women of his community, and have the con- 
feres select the various sub-committees. While in a community the 
representative would take occasion to address school children and or- 
ganize War Savings Societies and address such other groups of citizens 
as were available and, wherever practicable, to solicit pledges for War 
Savings. Mills and factories were glad to stop work for a few minutes 
and give the field representative an opportunity to talk War Savings 
and even take pledges and organize Societies. 

Flying Squadrons 

One phase of the field work was that of the Flying Squadrons. 
It was found that many of the County Committees needed actual 
demonstration in soliciting pledges, as they were not trained solicitors 
and did not know how to secure pledges for large amounts. The 
plan was to have three Flying Squadrons of six experienced workers 
each and to have a Flying Squadron spend one full day in a county. 
The County Committee would meet the squadron immediately after 
its arrival in the county and make up six teams of two each — a 
member of the squadron and a local man. The teams would select 
their territory and go out for a day's work of soliciting pledges. At 
an appointed hour late in the afternoon or evening all the teams would 
meet for reports on the day's work. And the teams, as well as the three 
squadrons, rivalled one another in the amount of pledges secured. Most 
of the members of the squadrons were effective public speakers, and these 
placed themselves at the disposal of the County Chairman for addresses in 
the evening they were in a county. It would have taken these squadrons 
three weeks to cover or give a day" each to the leading counties of the 
State. The first week of their work was very successful; not only 
were thousands of dollars in pledges secured but the local workers 
were given a demonstration of the ease with which pledges, even for 
the limit, might be secured. But at the end of the first week the 
squadrons had to be called out of the field out of deference to the 
workers in the Third Liberty Loan, which began April 6 and lasted 
until May 4, and by the time the squadrons were ready to go back 
into the field, the June drive, calling for an entirely different plan, 
had been announced. Among those who were members of the Flying 
Squadrons were Messrs. O. B. Eaton, M. P. Traynor, Chas. E. Reynal, 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 25 

D. F. Giles, John A. Oates, W. C. Bivens, Beverly Lake, E. E. Stanley, 

E. E. Emerson and W. H. Weatherspoon. 

The several drives required considerable field work from State 
Headquarters, but it is probably better to discuss this type of field 
work in connection with the drives themselves. 

Victory Acres and Thrift Gardens 

An idea that gave great promise but one that was abandoned 
before it could be promoted to the finish was that of Victory Acres 
and Thrift Gardens. The idea was to get farmers to plant an acre 
each in some crop — like cotton, peanuts, or tobacco — that would yield 
large profits, dedicate it to War Savings, distinguish it in some way 
as by having a flag wave over it, and invest all the proceeds in War 
Savings Stamps, and to have the children in both town and country 
to plant Thrift Gardens for the same purpose. Mr. Cobb, through 
his advertising department, and Miss Herring, through her newspaper 
articles, and the field men through their addresses and conferences made 
much of the Victory Acre and Thrift Gardens. And the people were 
found to be very responsive. Large landholders were arranging with 
their tenants to plant Victory Acres. Home and Farm Demonstra- 
tion Agents were promoting Thrift Gardens among the children. But 
before the planting season was over the attention of all War Savings 
workers was turned to preparation for the June drive. 

Limit Clubs 

During the early months of the campaign there were several 
special drives announced and urged by the State Headquarters, but 
they were undertaken and pushed by only a limited number of coun- 
ties. Mention has already been made of the effort in December to get em- 
ployers to use Stamps as Christmas gifts and in the payment of bonuses. 
The week of March 4th Was set apart for the formation of County 
Limit Clubs to be composed of those who pledged themselves to save 
systematically and purchase $1000 worth of War Savings Stamps dur- 
ing the year. The National Headquarters announced that it expected 
one per cent of the population of North Carolina — or twenty-five thou- 
sand — to become limit members. Wherever canvasses were organized 
to get limit members they were successful. Forsyth County secured 
$139,000 in limit pledges in about an hour's time. Cleveland County 
secured more than its allotment of limit members. The drive for 
limit members was continued till March 16 and then turned into a 
drive for $500 members, with the goal of securing twenty thousand 
$500 members. Complete figures on the results of these drives were 



26 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

not secured, but on March 22 the State Headquarters announced that 
$1,702,000 had been secured in pledges. 

War Savings Societies and Army of Thrift 

In the beginning it was contemplated that War Savings Societies 
should be one of the big features of the campaign. Through these 
Societies the Army of Thrift was to be mobilized. This army was to 
be composed of those who pledged themselves to save and economize 
and to get others to save, economize, and invest their savings in War 
Savings Stamps. There were to be ranks — Captain, Major, Colonel, 
General — in the Army of Thrift, the same as in the regular army, 
and distinctions of grade were to be marked by distinguishing badges. 
School children were fascinated by the idea of the Army of Thrift, 
and were eager to become soldiers and later officers in the Army. 
Having failed to make much out of North Carolina Day in the 
schools on account of the bad weather, the State Director centered his 
attention upon February 22, which Dr. Joyner had designated as Thrift 
Day and for its observance had prepared excellent programs. Governor 
Bickett asked all the courts to be adjourned on that day so that the 
judges and attorneys and officers of the court might make War Sav- 
ings addresses in the schools. The State Director requested that a 
War Savings Society be organized in every school room and that Stamps 
be had for sale at the school on February 22. Results on Thrift Day 
were much more gratifying than they had been on North Carolina 
Day. The meaning of the campaign was better understood, the weather 
was not so inclement, and the teachers were still under the inspiration 
of the Institute which had been held only a few days previous. The 
month between February 22 and March 22 was, perhaps, the richest 
period of the year for War Savings Societies. They were organized 
in school rooms, in factories, in women's clubs, in offices, lodges and 
church societies. It was reported to the State Headquarters that a 
society had been organized in every school room of every school house, 
white and colored, in New Hanover County. Several counties reported 
a society organized in every white school in the county. The records 
of towns and counties in the organization of War Savings Societies were 
the news features of the day. A considerable portion of Miss Herring's 
time was taken looking after these societies. In addition to her other 
duties, she undertook to prepare a bi-weekly graded program for their 
regular monthly meetings. By March 15th five hundred War Savings 
Societies with an estimated membership of twenty-five thousand had 
been reported to State Headquarters. On March 25th North Caro- 
lina was ninth from the top of the States in the number of War Savings 
Societies. By April 14th seven hundred War Savings Societies had 
been reported from fifty counties. On May 2 it was announced that 
North Carolina had eight hundred and eleven properly organized and 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 27 

properly reported War Savings Societies. This put her in the lead 
of all the Southern States. The societies were growing so rapidly and 
bulking so large in importance in the campaign that the State Director 
made provision for a field-worker who would give her entire time to 
War Savings Societies. For the months of June, July, and August, he 
secured the services of Miss Mary G. Shotwell, of the Lenoir County 
schools. 

Family Limit Societies 

One departure in the War Savings Society idea was the Family 
Limit War Savings Society of North Carolina, composed of families 
in the name of each member of which $1,000 worth of War Savings 
Stamps of the issue of 1918 had been purchased. Up to the end of 
the year two hundred and forty Limit Families had been reported to 
the State Headquarters, representing an investment of $796,000 in 
War Savings Stamps. The largest investor in Stamps in the State and, 
for that matter, in the United States, so far as the State Headquarters 
was able to ascertain, was Mr. J. A. Jones of Charlotte, who invested in 
War Savings Stamps $15,000 — $1,000 each for himself, his wife, and 
each of his thirteen children. Mr. C. E. Neisler of Kings Mountain was 
second with $10,000, and Mr. C. A. Williams of Charlotte, third, with 
$9,000. Among the Limit Families was one colored family — that of 
Dr. C. H. Hines of Edenton, who invested $4,000 in Stamps. To 
each of the Limit Families the State Director issued a certificate bear- 
ing the name of each member of the family. 

100% Colleges 

Paralleling the work in the public schools was that in the colleges 
of the State. In December, 1917, it had been announced that every 
student at the University of North Carolina had pledged himself to 
purchase one or more War Savings Stamps. In the spring the State 
Director conceived the plan of declaring a college 100 per cent in 
which every student pledged himself to buy one or more War Sav- 
ings Stamps. The proposition was first presented to Rutherford 
College by one of the members of a Flying Squadron operating in 
Burke County, and the students responded so heartily that itineraries 
of the field workers were arranged so as to reach every college in the 
State before the commencement with the appeal. Salem, Lenoir, and 
Rutherford were the only three colleges that officially reported 100 per 
cent. But every college in the State would have easily and gladly 
won this distinction if the campaign among them, already planned and 
announced, had not been abandoned before it was scarcely begun. 



28 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

100% Industrial Plants 

Alongside the colleges the factories and mills of the State were eager 
to make themselves 100 per cent by having every employee pledge 
to buy at least one War Savings Stamp during the year. This 
proposition was first presented to the employees of the Marion Hosiery 
Mills, Marion, and they responded eagerly. But this plan also was never 
carried out completely. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 29 

CHAPTER III 

The June Drive 

The Turn of the Campaign 

It must arouse the curiosity of the reader why so many plans of 
the War Savings Campaign were started and got under way during 
the first months of 1918 and then abandoned before they were worked 
to the finish — namely, War Savings Societies, Victory Acres and Thrift 
Gardens, Flying Squadrons, making colleges and industrial plants 100 
per cent in War Savings. The explanation is that a sharp turn, a very 
sharp, turn in the War Savings Campaign, was taken the first of May. 

The New York Conference 

The latter part of April Colonel Fries received a telegram from 
Mr. Vanderlip calling him to a conference of State Directors and other 
War Savings workers in New York on May 1 and asking him, in the 
meantime, to hold in abeyance all the plans that he might have for 
the future War Savings work. In compliance with this request, the State 
Director held the War Savings work in North Carolina in statu quo dur- 
ing the latter part of April and, taking with him Mr. Stephenson and Mr. 
Milloway, met Mr. Vanderlip and the other State Directors of the 
South and East in conference at the Plaza Hotel in New York on 
May 1. At this conference Mr. Vanderlip announced that by the 
adoption and operation of a certain plan, Nebraska had oversubscribed 
its allotment in March, and that he would ask the other States to 
adopt this plan, with certain necessary modifications. After an all- 
day's session of discussion, the State Directors assured Mr. Vanderlip 
that they would work this plan in their respective States. 

The Plan of the June Drive 

The plan was to have President Wilson designate a certain day as 
National War Savings Day, to have a post-card mailed to each adult 
citizen, signed by the State Director, calling upon him to attend a meet- 
ing at the school house of his district on that day and pledge himself 
to buy a definite number of War Savings Stamps per month during 
the balance of the year. Immediately on returning, the State Director 
held conferences with his State Headquarters force to modify the 
Nebraska plan so as to make it fit the special needs of the State. It 
was found necessary to make the township and ward, rather than the 
school district, the unit of operation, and to make it a campaign of a 



30 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

week, culminating on National War Savings Day, rather than stake 
everything upon one day. The chief features of the plan of the June 
Drive, as announced, were as follows : ( 1 ) a series of district con- 
ferences to acquaint the county chairmen with the plan; (2) a meet- 
ing of the local postmasters at the central accounting office of the 
county to provide for a supply of Stamps to meet the unusual demand 
that would result from the intensive drive; (3) the copying of the 
name and address of every individual who was able to buy one or 
more Stamps into a Pledge Record Book; (4) reconstructing the county 
organization so as to have a chairman for every township and ward, 
a leader for every school-house, and enough canvassers for every com- 
munity; (5) designating Sunday, June 23, as North Carolina War 
Savings Sundays and asking Sunday-School superintendents and teachers 
and ministers to present War Savings to their respective audiences on 
that day; (6) making a house-to-house canvass for pledges during the 
first four days of the following week; and (7) conducting a meeting 
in each school-house at 6 o'clock in the afternoon of Friday, June 28, 
to receive reports of the canvass and to secure additional pledges enough 
to raise the balance of the township's or ward's allotment. Presi- 
dent Wilson had previously designted June 28th as National War Sav- 
ings day and said, "I earnestly appeal to every man, woman and child 
to pledge themselves on or before the 28th of June to save constantly 
and to buy as regularly as possible the securities of the Government 
and to do this as far as possible through membership in War Savings 
Societies. The 28th of June ends this special period of enlistment in 
the great volunteer Army of Production and Saving here at home. 
May there be none unenlisted on that day." 

The District Conferences 

The first step towards getting ready for the June drive was the 
series of district conferences. These were held as follows: Winston- 
Salem, May 9; Charlotte, May 11; Fayetteville, May 13; Wilming- 
ton, May 14; New Bern, May 15; Elizabeth City, May 16; Weldon, 
May 17; and Asheville, May 21. Those who helped conduct these 
conferences were Messrs. H. E. Fries, J. K. Norfleet, John L. Gilmer, 
Richard G. Stockton and Gilbert T. Stephenson. Each conference 
was designated to reach the nearby counties. The aim of it was to 
instruct the county chairmen in the plan of campaign and arouse them 
to go into the drive whole-heartedly. The first task the county chair- 
men were set to was reconstructing their organizations. The sub- 
committees representing the several interests, industries, and professions 
of the county were not practicable in such a drive ; a compact, geogra- 
phical organization was necessary. 

Back at the State Headquarters everything and everybody were 
centered upon the June drive. The Publicity Department's efforts 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 31 

were taken off War Savings Societies, Victory Acres and Thrift Gar- 
dens, 100 per cent colleges and industries, and thrift propaganda and 
turned to the June drive. The Director of Organization, Mr. Stockton, 
was busy getting the County Chairmen to appoint township and ward 
chairmen and get them, in turn, to appoint canvassers and leaders of 
school house meetings. Miss Mary Shotwell, who had come to pro- 
mote War Savings Societies in the schools, was retained to help super- 
intend getting out the enormous amount of mail and advertising matter 
which the State Headquarters had to issue. The State Headquarters 
worked and asked each county to work under the following calendar: 

Calendar of War Savings Drive 

May 28-June 3 — Copy War Savings Pledge Records (Form 2). 

June 3 — Postmasters' Conference. 

June 3-8 — Copy Canvassers' Cards (Form 15). 

June 8 — Conference of Township and Ward Chairmen with 
County Chairmen. 

June 10-15 — Conference of Canvassers and Conductors of School- 
house Meetings with Township and Ward Chairmen. 

June 17 — War Savings Pledge Records (Form 2) returned by 
Township and Ward Chairmen to County Chairmen to be used in 
addressing cards summoning to school house meetings (Form 8). 

June 17-21 — Address cards summoning citizens to school-house 
meetings (Form 8). 

June 22 — War Savings Workers' Conference — County Chairman 
and Assistants, Township and Ward Chairmen, Canvassers, Conduc- 
tors of School-house Meetings, and Participants in Programs of War 
Savings Sunday (June 23), and National War Savings Day (June 28). 

June 23-28 — North Carolina War Savings Week. 

June 23 — North Carolina War Savings Sunday. 

June 24 — House-to-house canvass. • 

June 25 — House-to-house Canvass; Meeting at night for reports. 

June 26 — House-to-house canvass. 

June 27 — House-to-house canvass ; Meeting at night for reports. 

June 28 — National War Savings Day. 

June 29 — Meeting of Township and Ward Chairmen to return 
Records and Pledge Cards and tabulate results of drive. 

The State Headquarters had to accompany each shipment of 
supplies to the County Chairmen and call attention to each step in 
the drive by special letters. It had also to get out special letters to 
the members of the County Committee under the original plan of 



32 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

organization, to the postmasters, to the banks, to the insurance men, 
to the lawyers, to the Sunday School superintendents, to the ministers, 
to the clerks of court, to the sheriffs, and to the school superintendents. 
In addition to what could be accomplished by the mail, the district 
chairmen, of whom mention has already been made, visited the coun- 
ties in their respective districts, some of them two or three times, to 
help the chairmen and see that they were proceeding with preparations 
in orderly fashion. The State Headquarters did not undertake to 
furnish speakers for the several counties, but only furnished a list 
of available speakers from which the County Chairmen could make 
their own arrangements. 

The State Headquarters followed the plan as announced almost 
to the letter, and while many of the County Chairmen followed the 
plan faithfully, some varied it slightly, and a few did not follow it 
at all. It is remarkable that just in proportion as a county followed 
the plan in letter and spirit, its results justified the effort, while the 
few counties that abandoned the plan were disappointing in their results. 

Results of June Drive 

As some of the counties had not completed the canvass on June 
28, the drive was continued through July 4th. When reports from all 
the counties were in it was found that $30,390,790 had been secured 
in pledges which — it must be remembered — included the sales up to 
that time. Nine counties had been reported as having subscribed 
their allotment or more: Wilson, Cabarrus, Forsyth, Greene, Jones, 
Lenoir, Martin, Perquimans, and Pitt. The following were 
three-fourths over: Chowan, Franklin, Granville, Guilford, Nash, 
Northampton, Onslow, Orange, Scotland, Stokes, Surry, Union, Vance, 
Washington, and Wayne. The following were over half over: Ala- 
mance, Beaufort, Buncombe, Burke, Camden, Carteret, Catawba, Chat- 
ham, Cleveland, Craven, Davie, Davidson, Durham, Gaston, Halifax, 
Harnett, Hertford, Jackson, Johnston, McDowell, Mecklenburg, Mont- 
gomery, Moore, New Hanover, Pamlico, Pasquotank, Randolph, Rich- 
mond, Rockingham, Rowan, Stanly, Swain, Wake, Warren, and Yadkin. 
The balance of the counties were under half over. The State lacked 
about $18,000,000 having subscribed its allotment. 

The Follow-Up Drives 

No sooner had it been realized at the State Headquarters that 
the State had not subscribed its allotment than plans were laid for a 
series of follow-up drives in the counties that had not secured as much 
as three-fourths of their allotment. One of the difficulties of the 
June drive in some of the counties was that it came in the midst of the 
wheat harvest. It was chiefly to accommodate the farmers that the 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 33 

school house meetings were set as late as six in the afternoon. Another 
weakness noticeable in the drive was the lack of experienced canvassers. 
In many counties the number of pledges were enough but the pledges 
were for such small amounts and so out of keeping with the means of 
the pledgers that the total subscription was disappointing. Instead of 
having the follow-up drive the same week in every county, the State 
Director had the County Chairman to indicate his first, second, and 
third choice of any week between the 15th of July and the 15th of 
September. While it was realized at the State Headquarters that 
July and August were probably the leanest months of the year for 
soliciting pledges, they were the only months during which the War 
Savings Campaign was not apt to conflict with some other War effort. 
The Fourth Liberty Loan had already been announced for the early 
fall and the Allied War Relief Campaign to follow immediately after- 
wards. While most of the County Chairmen chose one of the last two 
weeks of August or the first two weeks of September for their drive, 
enough drives were put on late in July and the first of August to give 
the follow-up work considerable momentum. By the 14th of August 
Franklin, Nash, Iredell, and Union had been reported over, making 
fourteen counties in all. The Flying Squadron idea, started early in 
the campaign but abandoned on account of the Third Liberty Loan 
and the June drive, was now adapted to the follow-up drives. 

Results of Follow-Up Drives 

The series of follow-up drives running from July 15 to Septem- 
ber 15 resulted in adding $6,293,054 to the State's subscription, making 
the total subscription on October 1, when pledge-taking ceased, $37,- 
083,444. .Besides Franklin, jNash, ilredell, Union, and !Gates al- 
ready mentioned, Anson, Chowan, Henderson, and Mecklenburg had 
subscribed their allotment, making nineteen counties 100 per cent in 
subscription. 

Redemption of Pledges 

As soon as the follow-up drives for pledges were over, the State 
Headquarters turned its attention to the redemption of these $20,000,000 
(round figures and an estimate only) of unredeemed pledges. At the 
end of the June drive the County Chairmen had been instructed to 
keep the pledge-cards in their possession until further notice. It was 
recognized that a distribution of the pledge-cards before a county had 
subscribed its allotment would cause confusion. But as soon as pledge- 
taking was over the County Chairmen were instructed to dissemble 
the cards according to the postoffice or agency at which the Stamps 
were to be bought, to alphabetize the cards, and to make four lists of 
the name, address, and amount of the pledge — one for the agency, one 



34 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

for the County Chairman, and two for the State Director. Where one 
failed to indicate where he meant to buy his Stamps, his card was 
sent to his postoffice. The State Headquarters furnished three franked 
post-cards to be sent to each pledger reminding him of his pledge — 
one to be sent by the County Chairman, one by the postoffice or agency, 
and one by the State Director. This plan of pledge-redemption in- 
volved an enormous amount of work upon the State Director and 
County Chairman, and yet some such plan was necessary, since so many 
pledgers were waiting to be notified where their cards were. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 35 

CHAPTER IV 

Final Drive 

The War Savings work, for anything except the redemption of 
pledges, was practically at a standstill during the month of October. 
The latter part of October the State Director announced a Victory 
Drive November 28-December 6, which was meant not only to get 
the outstanding pledges redeemed but also to get enough additional 
pledges to secure the balance of the State's allotment. The plan was 
to have a meeting of War Savings workers in every township or ward 
on Thanksgiving Day, to constitute teams of workers, to divide 
the territory, and, between then and December 6, to make a house-to- 
house canvass of the community to ascertain (1) how much each 
family had already invested in War Savings Stamps and (2) how 
much it would invest towards the balance of the State's allotment. 

District Conferences 

Preparatory to this drive a series of District conferences were held 
as follows: Elizabeth City, November 6; Washington, November 7; 
Tarboro, November 8; Raleigh, November 9; Bryson City, November 
12; Hendersonville, November 13; Marion, November 14; Hickory, 
November 15; Statesville, November 18; Hamlet, November 19; Wil- 
mington, November 20; and Greensboro, November 21. To these 
conferences were invited county chairmen, township chairmen, mem- 
bers of the State Executive Committee, and men and women who had 
been active in other branches of War work, such as Liberty Loan and 
Allied War Relief. The conferences were conducted by Messrs. O. B. 
Eaton, John L. Gilmer, Gilbert T. Stephenson and Miss Kate Herring. 
In those parts of the State where there were many colored people a 
separate conference was conducted for them by Dr. S. G. Atkins, 
assisted by Mr. Eaton and Mr. Stephenson. The conferences, as a 
rule, were very well attended, despite the fact that they came in the 
midst of the epidemic of influenza. The conference at Raleigh had to 
be held in sections, not permitting over a dozen to assemble at a time. 
The one announced for Asheville had to be moved to Hendersonville. 
The one announced for Salisbury had to be moved to Statesville. 

The Victory Drive was not fruitful of pledges. A complete re- 
port was never received at the State Headquarters. The Thanks- 
giving meetings were rained out all over the State. In some of the 
counties the County Chairmen did their best to put on the canvass 
and got fairly good results. This is particularly true of Beaufort, 



36 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

Cumberland, and Guilford. But in most of the others the County 
Chairman felt that it was useless, under all the circumstances, to 
try to put on another canvass. 

The Conference of December 4 

As soon as the State Director saw that the Victory Drive would 
not put the State "over the top," he called into conference at Winston- 
Salem on December 4, 1918, the following War Savings workers: E. J. 
Barnes, Wilson; W. J. Berryman, Edenton; J. E. Brinn, Sanford; 
S. P. Burton, Asheville; G. L. Clendenin, Lincolnton; S. P. Collier, 
Jr., Winston-Salem; A. M. Dixon, Charlotte; F. W. Dixon, Snow 
Hill; H. E. Fries, Winston-Salem; W. G. Gaither, Elizabeth City; 
D. F. Giles, Raleigh; John L. Gilmer, Winston-Salem; Wilson Gray, 
Winston-Salem; F. E. Griffith, Winston-Salem; James G. Hanes, 
Winston-Salem; B. D. Haynes, Durham; W. M. Hendren, Winston- 
Salem; Eugene Holt, Burlington; Beverly Lake, Salisbury; Paul 
Leonard, Statesville; J. G. Lewis, Statesville; J. S. McNider, Hert- 
ford; W. R. Martin, Winston-Salem; Will Maslin, Winston-Salem; 
J. H. Matthews, Windsor; Van Melchor, Winston-Salem; Archibald 
Nichols, Asheville; William Perlstein, Raleigh; W. D. Pethel, Spencer; 
T. F. Pettus, Wilson; Dr. Chas. E. Reynal, Statesville; Dr. Howard 
Rondthaler, Winston-Salem; M. L. Shipman, Raleigh; J. Clinton 
Smoot, N. Wilkesboro; J. G. Stikeleather, Asheville; W. B. Strachen, 
Salisbury; and Leon T. Vaughan, Nashville. 

At this conference it was decided to apportion what the State still 
lacked in subscriptions among the business concerns of the State ac- 
cording to the minimum commercial rating of each. Several of the 
conferes agreed to present the matter to the business concerns of certain 
counties. Certain men also agreed to make a special appeal to the indus- 
tries with which they were connected : Mr. A. H. Bahnson, to the cotton 
mills; Mr. James G. Hanes, to the knitting mills; Mr. H. A. Pfohl, to 
the builders and contractors; Mr. Will Maslin, to the fertilizer compa- 
nies ; Mr. Van Melchor, to the bottling concerns ; Mr. A. W. Cornwall, 
to the box industries; Mr. J. Clinton Smoot of North Wilkesboro, to 
the tanneries; Mr. Wilson Gray, to the tobacco factories; Mr. J. K. 
Norfleet, to the tobacco warehouses. In addition to the appeals that 
these men made to their several industries, the State Headquarters 
made an appeal by letter to every store, manufactory, and other busi- 
ness house in the State to invest in Stamps its proportionate part of the 
State's deficit, suggesting that, after both the business and each member of 
the concern had bought the limit, it might absorb a great many more 
Stamps to be given as Christmas gifts or paid out in extra dividends and 
bonuses. Supplementing the men who had undertaken to go into 
certain counties, the State Director sent as many field workers as he 
could command at the time into the counties that specially needed help. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 37 

But with all this effort, it is doubtful if more than $200,000 was 
added to the total. 

Special Mention of Workers 

It would not be possible or proper to make special mention of 
each of the hundreds of patriotic men and women in North Carolina 
who rendered signal service in the War Savings Campaign — men and 
women who gave their time and energy to the cause, without counting 
the cost. But with some of these the War Savings cause must be 
forever inseparably connected. One of them is Governor Bickett. 

Not only did Governor Bickett use the prestige of his office in 
behalf of War Savings but he gave of himself freely, gladly, without 
stint. During the entire month of September, accompanied first by 
Dr. A. H. Patterson, of the University of North Carolina, and later 
by Mr. J. G. Stikeleather, of Asheville, he toured fourteen of the 
mountain counties pleading the causes of both the War and War 
Savings. 

Another of these men is Dr. J. Y. Joyner, then Superintendent 
of Public Instruction of North Carolina. Not only did he formally 
commit his educational forces to the obligation of pushing War Sav- 
ings but he threw himself — heart and body — into the campaign. 

Among the men who represented the State Headquarters in the 
field with special effect were Mr. O. B. Eaton and W. M. Scott, 
of Winston-Salem; Dr. Chas. E. Reynal and Mr. S. B. Miller, of 
Statesville. Mr. Eaton became associated with the State Head- 
quarters early in the campaign and was in the work to the end. 
Gifted with the power of eloquent and appealing speech, he used his 
powers in behalf of War Savings. He was, in deed and in truth, a 
flaming evangelist of patriotism all over North Carolina. And when 
the record of the June Drive was completed it was found that the 
section in which he had worked most had made the best showing of 
any in the State. Mr. Miller and Mr. Scott placed at the disposal 
of the State Director their unusual gift of personal solicitation. Few 
men in the State were their equal and none their superior in presenting 
the War Savings cause and in getting pledges. Dr. Chas. E. Reynal, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Statesville, early saw in 
the War Savings campaign moral and spiritual values which challenged 
his interest. Not only did he give freely of his time for public address 
but he aided in the organization and in the personal solicitation as well. 

Mr. F. W. Dixon, County Chairman of Greene County that 
had already oversubscribed its allotment by 28 per cent, took ten of his 
best workers and went into Rutherford and McDowell Counties and 
spent a week canvassing with the local committees. Mr. J. S. Mc- 
Nider of Perquimans, at the request of the State Director, went into 



38 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

Gates County, which had subscribed only 7 per cent of its allotment in 
June, and spent two weeks helping the local committee perfect a 
working organization, put on a follow-up drive, and had the satisfaction 
of seeing Gates oversubscribe its allotment by 15 per cent. 

Mr. Milton W. Harrison of New York, who had given such a 
distinct impetus to the campaign in its early stages, came back and 
gave the first week in September to work in Guilford, Alamance, 
Orange, Durham, Cumberland, and Craven. 

The Wounded Soldiers 

In addition to these, each one of whom was an experienced War 
Savings worker, the Army Hospital at Waynesville furnished the 
State Director at least a dozen young American soldiers who had just 
returned from the front, gassed or wounded. Some of these boys had 
even taken part in the spring War drive which had turned the tide and 
begun Germany's retreat. While these boys were not experienced speak- 
ers and knew little about War Savings, they could tell their experiences. 
They were sent into the counties in pairs and were permitted to stay 
in a county as much as a week. They were accompanied by local 
speakers and experienced workers. They accomplished in the rural 
counties and remote districts what Captain Fallon and Lieutenant Choyce 
had done in the cities and larger towns of the State earlier in the year. 
And these soldiers warmed up to their War Savings work and took 
pride in the number of pledges taken at their meetings the same as 
they took pride in the number of Germans taken prisoners or accounted 
for on the battlefront. 

The following citizens gave one or more weeks of their time be- 
tween July 15 and September 15 to do War Savings work in some 
county other than their own : J. M. Broughton, Raleigh ; Owen Gudger, 
Asheville; R. W. Herring, Fayetteville ; F. S. Vernay, Winston- 
Salem; E. F. Aydlett, Elizabeth City; Marshall W. Bell, Murphy; 
E. J. Barnes, Wilson; J. G. Lewis, Statesville; Santford Martin, 
Raleigh; W. C. Manning, Williamston; W. W Neal, Marion; 
J. G. Stikeleather, Asheville; L. S. Tomlinson, Wilson; M. L. Ship- 
man, Raleigh; J. E. Debnam, Snow Hill; Rev. Thomas Grant, Hook- 
erton; H. E. Austin, Greenville; B. D. Ebbs, Burnsville; M. E. 
Block, Greensboro; D. Weatherspoon, Murphy; and C. W. Wilson, 
Greenville. 

One hesitates to mention any of these men when he cannot men- 
tion all. The insurance companies of the State, particularly the 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, encouraged their agents every- 
where to be active in the sale of War Savings Stamps. The railroads 
operating in the State encouraged their agents to sell Stamps. When 
he begins calling these to mind, others whose work was scarcely, if 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 39 

at all, less resultful, come clamoring for mention: D. C. Barnes of 
Murf reesboro ; Mrs. Ollie Webster of Siler City; Mrs. N. Mel. 
Moore, postmaster at Warrenton; J. G. Stikeleather, Owen 
Gudger, and William Burkel of Asheville; D. F. Giles of Ral- 
eigh. As early as February Mr. Giles wrote the State Director: "Use 
me anywhere for anything (for sixty days), for I must do something 
for my country, and I believe this is the greatest work for us all to 
do at this time. I have three brothers in the War, one in France, 
giving their services and lives, too, if they are needed, and here I 
am to do all I can do. Put me to work." 

The Women 

To the women of North Carolina acknowledgment must be made 
for their most excellent service to the War Savings cause. Club women, 
school teachers, home demonstration agents, housewives — they all fell 
into the work, heart and body. Mrs. Clarence Johnson, President of 
the North Carolina Federation of Women's Clubs, was constantly 
promoting War Savings. A large majority of the War Savings Societies 
was organized by women. Thrift Gardens were the special care of 
country women. During the June drive a colored woman in Warren 
County, a school teacher, by herself secured over $1,500 in pledges. 
Without the women's aid the War Savings record of North Carolina 
would be far short of what it is. 



40 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

CHAPTER V. 

Financial Results of the Campaign 

The results of the War Savings Campaign must be inventoried 
under two heads — first the amount of money realized, second the 
nature and amount of good done the people of the State. During 
the first half of the campaign educating our people in patriotism and 
thrift was the chief object and the raising of money incidental; during 
the latter half of the campaign raising money was the chief object 
and teaching thrift and arousing patriotism incidental. 

Pledges 

The fruits of the campaign in terms of money, being tangible 
and material, may be definitely counted. Our objective was $48,666,- 
380 or $20.00 per capita, maturity value, for every man, woman and 
child — white and black — in the State. This is the same basis of 
apportionment that obtained over the entire nation. At the end of 
the June drive, as has already been stated, the State had subscribed 
$30,790,390 or not quite two-thirds of its allotment. At the end of 
the series of follow-up drives on October 1, the State had subscribed 
$37,083,444 or a little over three-fourths of its allotment. The 
following table shows the portion of the $48,666,380 alloted to each 
County on the basis of population, the amount that had been subscribed 
in each County by October 1, when pledge-taking ceased, and the 
per cent of each county's allotment that had been subscribed at that 
time: 



County Quota 

Alamance 631,660 

Alexander 255,020 

Alleghany 170,380 

Anson 560,220 

Ashe 419,620 

Avery 174,020 

Beaufort 679,280 

Bertie 506,840 

Bladen 396,160 

Brunswick 317,500 

Burke 470,960 

Buncombe 1,095,540 

Cabarrus 577,280 

Caldwell 452,720 

Camden 124,080 

Carteret 303,060 



Amount 


Per Cent 


Pledged 


Pledged 


551,100 


87.23 


128,000 


50.19 


131,538 


77.20 


592,860 


105.82 


143,000 


34.07 


100,000 


57.46 


615,000 


90.54 


475,520 


93.82 


100,000 


25.24 


52,000 


16.40 


370,000 


78.56 


921,497 


83.20 


577,280 


100.00 


180,000 


39.75 


97,000 


78.49 


210,000 


69.28 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 41 



County Quota 

Caswell 326,860 

Catawba 614,180 

Chatham 497,960 

Cherokee 310,980 

Chowan 248,660 

Clay 86,000 

Cleveland 648,860 

Columbus 616,440 

Craven 563,060 

Cumberland 674,380 

Currituck 169,240 

Dare 106,500 

Davidson 646,880 

Davie 294,660 

Duplin 559,720 

Durham 776,080 

Edgecombe 704,220 

Forsyth 1,040,840 

Franklin 543,220 

Gaston ., 815,380 

Gates 230,000 

Graham 104,480 

Granville 552,240 

Greene 287,760 

Guilford 1,330,940 

Halifax 828,220 

Harnett 533,780 

Haywood 462,440 

Henderson 357,760 

Hertford 339,580 

Hoke 268,000 

Hyde 194,480 

Iredell 754,920 

Jackson 285,960 

Johnston 910,820 

Jones 191,860 

Lee 250,280 

Lenoir 500,920 

Lincoln 376,900 

McDowell 297,840 

Macon 268,200 

Madison 442,900 

Martin 391,540 

Mecklenburg 1,474,660 

Mitchell 205,260 

Montgomery 329,280 

Moore 374,220 

Nash 742,000 

New Hanover 704,820 

Northampton 491,100 

Onslow 310,760 

Orange 331,400 

Pamlico 219,260 

Pasquotank 367,240 



Amount 


Per Cent 


Pledged 


Pledged 


160,000 


48.95 


475,000 


77.50 


260,000 


52.21 


148,000 


47.59 


253,634 


102.00 


17,650 


20.52 


500,000 


77.07 


238,000 


35.52 


335,000 


59.49 


300,000 


44.48 


70,000 


41.36 


25,000 


23.47 


511,000 


78.90 


200,000 


67.84 


233,000 


41.62 


640,000 


82.46 


720,000 


102.24 


1,250,000 


120.09 


564,000 


103.62 


675,000 


82.56 


270,000 


117.39 


41,420 


39.54 


412,078 


74.62 


370,000 


128.54 


1,100,000 


82.64 


625,000 


77.86 


325,000 


60.88 


396,514 


85.74 


365,000 


102.02 


299,252 


88.12 


125,200 


43.02 


160,000 


82.21 


755,000 


100.01 


257,300 


89.97 


750,000 


82.34 


208,473 


108.66 


210,000 


83.90 


501,000 


100.01 


212,084 


56.26 


189,235 


63.53 


150,000 


55.17 


265,000 


59.89 


426,000 


108.80 


1,489,660 


101.01 


148,000 


72.10 


230,496 


70.00 


178,000 


47.59 


744,000 


100.26 


488,296 


69.28 


440,000 


89.59 


300,000 


96.53 


256,000 


77.54 


150,000 


68.42 


235,000 


63.96 



42 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



County Quota 

Pender 340,360 

Perquimans 243,180 

Person 381,840 

Pitt 799,480 

Polk 168,080 

Randolph 648,800 

Richmond - 432,800 

Robeson 1,059,280 

Rockingham 801,720 

Rowan 825,460 

Rutherford 624,480 

Sampson 659,600 

Scotland 337,980 

Stanly 438,000 

Stokes 443,320 

Surry 653,520 

Swain 228,860 

Transylvania 158,200 

Tyrell 114,820 

Union 732,100 

Vance 427,360 

Wake 1,391,040 

Warren 445,860 

Washington 243,360 

Watauga 298,240 

Wayne 785,360 

Wilkes 666,200 

Wilson 621,920 

Yadkin 339,420 

Yancey 265,340 

North Carolina $48,666,380 

From the above table it appears that on October 1 nineteen coun- 
ties had subscribed their full allotment; six, between 90 and 100 per 
cent ; twenty-nine between 75 and 90 per cent ; twenty-seven, between 
50 and 75 per cent, and nineteen, less than 50 per cent. In per cent 
of allotment subscribed, Greene County led with 128.54 per cent; 
in total subscriptions, Mecklenburg led, with $1,489,660 subscribed. 

Sales by Months 

Sales, rather than pledges, count at the Treasury of the United 
States. War Savings Stamps were put on sale December 3, 1917. 
While exact figures are not at hand, it is believed that not over 
$50,000 was invested in War Savings Stamps in North Carolina 
during December, 1917. Only $10,000,000 was invested in Stamps in 
the United States that month. The following table gives the sales 



Amount 


Per Cent 


Pledged 


Pledged 


200,000 


58.75 


243,180 


100.00 


275,000 


72.28 


861,655 


107.77 


109,720 


65.29 


385,000 


59.18 


279,814 


64.65 


650,000 


52.86 


650,000 


81.06 


615,000 


74.57 


311.635 


49.74 


200,000 


31.99 


275,000 


81.36 


341,350 


77.85 


371,900 


83.88 


525,000 


80.33 


147,000 


63.75 


90,000 


56.36 


81,255 


77.67 


734,000 


100.25 


325,000 


76.04 


1,101,000 


79.15 


300,000 


67.28 


175,000 


71.08 


100,000 


33.53 


650.000 


82.77 


125,000 


18.76 


740,158 


119.01 


205,850 


60.64 


121,940 


45.95 


$37,083,444 


76.20 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



43 



by months after that, always counting the maturity value of the 
Stamps : 

Month Month's Sales Total Sales 

December No Report No Report 

January No Report No Report 

February No Report $1,051,038 

March $1,188,064 2,339,102 

April 2,002,299 4,339,401 

May 1,546,529 5,885,930 

June 1,650,088 7,536,018 

July 4,707,345 12,243,363 

August 2,206,715 14,450,078 

September 2,560,489 17,010,567 

October 2,554,065 19,565,532 

November 2,338,818 21,904,350 

December 5,745,047 27,649,397 



North Carolina sold $27,649,397,* maturity 
cent of its allotment. 



val 



ue, or 



56.80 



per 



Sales by Counties 

The following tables show the total amount sold by each County, 
the per cent of its allotment sold, and the 'standing of each Countv 
among the 100 Counties of the State: 



County Allotment 

Alamance 631,660 

Alexander 255,020 

Alleghany 170,380 

Anson 560,220 

Ashe 419,620 

Avery 174,020 

Beaufort 679,280 

Bertie 506,840 

Bladen 396,160 

Brunswick 317,500 

Burke 470,960 

Buncombe 1,095,540 

Cabarrus 577,280 

Caldwell 452,720 

Camden 124,080 

Carteret 303,060 

Caswell 326,860 





Per cent 


Standing 


Ami. Sold 


Sold 


In Sales 


452,816 


71.69 


21 


99,043 


38.84 


65 


30,159 


17.70 


93 


403,492 


72.02 


20 


76,161 


18.15 


92 


101,890 


58.55 


34 


299,613 


44.11 


55 


196,281 


38.61 


67 


57,430 


14.41 


98 


29,038 


9.14 


100 


255,812 


54.32 


43 


964,823 


88.07 


6 


564,293 


97.75 


3 


123,268 


27.23 


88 


44,961 


36.24 


71 


129,587 


42.76 


58 


111,848 


34.19 


79 



*This total represents maturity, rather than cash, value and includes 
sales by banks to January 10, 1919. The total of sales reported by the 
Treasury Department, on the other hand, which is $21,085,388, represents 
cash sales to December 31, 1918, and does not include redemptions — that 
is, Stamps cashed in during the year. This explains the apparent dis- 
crepancy between the figures published by the Treasury Department and 
those used in this volume. All the figures of sales used in this history 
are of maturity value. 



44 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

Per cent Standing 

County Allotment Amt. Sold Sold In Sales 

Catawba 614,180 437,977 71.31 22 

Chatham 497,960 211,382 42.43 59 

Cherokee • 310,980 155,375 49.95 49 

Chowan 246,660 186,744 75.66 13 

Clay 86,000 13,493 15.69 97 

Cleveland 648,860 411,503 63.42 28 

Columbus 616,440 150,127 24.35 90 

Craven 563,060 298,734 53.04 45 

Cumberland 674,380 232,799 34.52 75 

Currituck 169,240 24,302 14.36 99 

Dare 106,500 26,879 25.24 89 

Davidson 646,880 466,791 72.16 19 

Davie 294,660 198,971 67.53 25 

Duplin 559,660 199,206 35.59 73 

Durham 776,080 543,162 69.99 23 

Edgecombe* 704,220 750,546 106.58 2 

Forsyth 1,040,840 1,272,226 122.37 1 

Franklin 543,220 267,725 49.29 50 

Gaston 815,380 465,434 57.08 38 

Gates ! 230,000 87,809 38.18 69 

Graham 104,480 31,478 30.13 84 

Granville 552,240 304,380 55.12 40 

Greene 287,760 227,150 78.94 11 

Guilford 1,330,940 990,957 74.45 15 

Halifax 828,220 401,672 48.49 51 

Harnett 533,780 206,022 38.59 68 

Haywood 462,400 36S.813 79.57 10 

Henderson 357,760 208,770 58.91 32 

Hertford 339,580 187,850 55.35 39 

Hoke 268,000 74,896 27.95 87 

Hyde 194,480 78,273 40.25 63 

Iredell 754,920 548,952 72.72 18 

Jackson 285,960 89,097 31.16 82 

Johnston 910,820 410,807 45.10 53 

Jones 191,860 112,664 58.72 33 

Lee 250,280 228,378 91.25 5 

Lenoir 500,920 286,029 57.10 37 

Lincoln 376,900 217,072 57.59 35 

McDowell 297,840 154,274 51.79 46 

Macon 268,200 96,016 35.71 72 

Madison 442,900 239,206 54.09 44 

Martin 391,540 169,840 43.37 56 

Mecklenburg 1,474,660 1,072,934 72.76 17 

Mitchell 205,260 70,462 34.33 77 

Montgomery 329,280 141,579 42.99 57 

Moore — 374,220 156,246 41.75 60 

Nash* 742,000 213,077 28.72 86 

New Hanover 704,820 404,129 57.34 36 

Northampton 491,100 249,114 50.72 47 

Onslow 310,760 142,949 45.99 52 

Orange 331,400 241,654 72.92 16 

Pamlico 219,260 77,170 35.19 74 

Pasquotank 367,240 240,473 65.48 26 

*A11 the sales made by the Rocky Mount agencies and postoffices were 
credited to Edgecombe County, though a large but altogether incalculable 
amount of Stamps was purchased by residents of Nash County. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



45 



County Allotment 

Pender 340,360 

Perquimans 243,180 

Person 381,840 

Pitt 799,480 

Polk 168,080 

Randolph 648,800 

Richmond 432,800 

Robeson 1,059,280 

Rockingham 801,720 

Rowan 825,460 

Rutherford 624,480 

Sampson 659,600 

Scotland 337,980 

Stanly 438,000 

Stokes 443,320 

Surry 653,520 

Swain 228,860 

Transylvania 158,200 

Tyrrell 114,820 

Union 732,100 

Vance 427,360 

Wake 1,391,040 

Warren 445,860 

Washington 243,360 

Watauga 298,240 

Wayne 785,360 

Wilkes — 666,200 

Wilson 621,920 

Yadkin 339,420 

Yancy 265,340 



North Carolina__$48,666,380 





Per cent 


Standing 


Amt. Sold 


Sold 


In Sales 


59,068 


17.35 


94 


167,467 


68.86 


24 


171,282 


44.86 


54 


661,988 


82.80 


8 


50,094 


29.80 


85 


222,371 


34.28 


78 


238,398 


55.08 


41 


327,349 


30.90 


83 


517,083 


64.49 


27 


638,844 


77.39 


12 


242,267 


38.74 


66 


113,410 


17.19 


95 


107,732 


31.87 


80 


368,976 


84.24 


7 


152,726 


34.45 


76 


493,512 


75.51 


14 


138,617 


60.57 


30 


60,217 


38.06 


70 


47,419 


41.29 


61 


600,546 


82.03 


9 


264,056 


61.79 


29 


764,420 


54.96 


42 


225,770 


50.65 


48 


74,844 


31.58 


81 


47,861 


16.05 


96 


468,308 


59.63 


31 


146,259 


21.95 


91 


592,683 


95.29 


4 


136,951 


40.35 


62 


103,578 


39.03 


64 


$27,649,397 


56.80 





Standing of Counties in War Savings Sales 



County 



Per Cent Standing County 



Per Cent Standing 



Forsyth 122.37 1 

Edgecombe 106.58 2 

Cabarrus 97.75 3 

Wilson 95.29 4 

Lee 91.25 5 

Buncombe 88.07 6 

Stanly 84.24 7 

Pitt 82.80 8 

Union 82.03 9 

Haywood 79.57 10 

Greene 78.94 11 

Rowan 77.39 12 

Chowan 75.66 13 

Surry 75.51 14 

Guilford 74.45 15 

Orange 72.92 16 

Mecklenburg 72.76 17 

Iredell 72.72 18 

Davidson 72.16 19 

Anson 72.02 20 



Alamance 71.69 21 

Catawba 71.31 22 

Durham 69.99 23 

Perquimans 68.86 24 

Davie 67.53 25 

Pasquotank 65.48 26 

Rockingham 64.49 27 

Cleveland 63.42 28 

Vance 61.79 29 

Swain 60.57 30 

Wayne 59.63 31 

Henderson 58.91 32 

Jones 58.72 33 

Avery 58.55 34 

Lincoln 57.59 35 

New Hanover 57.34 36 

Lenoir 57.10 37 

Gaston 57.08 38 

Hertford 55.35 39 

Granville 55.12 40 



46 



THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



County Per Cent Standing 

Richmond 55.08 41 

Wake 54.96 42 

Burke 54.32 43 

Madison 54.09 44 

Craven 53.04 45 

McDowell 51.79 46 

Northampton 50.72 47 

Warren 50.64 48 

Cherokee - 49.95 49 

Franklin 49.29 50 

Halifax 48.49 51 

Onslow 45.99 52 

Johnston 45.10 53 

Person 44.86 54 

Beaufort 44.11 55 

Martin 43.37 56 

Montgomery 42.99 57 

Carteret 42.76 58 

Chatham 42.43 59 

Moore 41.75 60 

Tyrrell 41.29 61 

Yadkin 40.35 62 

Hyde 40.25 63 

Yancy 39.03 64 

Alexander 38.84 65 

Rutherford 38.74 66 

Bertie 38.61 67 

Harnett 38.59 68 

Gates 38.18 69 

Transylvania 38.06 70 



County Per Cent Standing 

Camden 36.24 71 

Macon 35.71 72 

Duplin 35.59 73 

Pamlico 35.19 74 

Cumberland 34.52 75 

Stokes 34.45 76 

Mitchell 34.33 77 

Randolph 34.28 78 

Caswell 34.19 79 

Scotland 31.87 80 

Washington 31.58 81 

Jackson 31 k 16 82 

Robeson 30.90 83 

Graham 30.13 84 

Polk 29.80 85 

Nash 28.72 86 

Hoke 27.95 87 

Caldwell 27.23 88 

Dare 25.24 89 

Columbus 24.35 90 

Wilkes 21.95 91 

Ashe 18.15 92 

Alleghany 17.70 93 

Pender 17.35 94 

Sampson 17.19 95 

Watauga 16.05 96 

Clay 15.69 97 

Bladen 14.41 98 

Currituck 14.36 99 

Brunswick 9.14 100 



Only two Counties — namely, Forsyth and Edgecombe — sold their 
entire allotment; three, between 90 and 100 per cent; nine, between 
75 and 90 per cent; thirty-four, between 50 and 75 per cent; and the 
other fifty-two, less than 50 per cent of their allotment. 

Per Capita Wealth 



An indication of the bigness of the undertaking to raise $20 per 
capita, with a limit of $1,000 upon the amount that could be owned 
by any one person, is shown by the per cent of the money value of 
the property of a county, as shown by the tax-books, that it would 
have taken to secure the War Savings allotment. To be sure, property 
is listed everywhere in North Carolina at far below its real value. 
And it is true that the difference between listed value and real value 
varies with individuals and with counties. But after all discounts 
because of these facts have been made, it remains that the listed property 
values compared with the War Savings allotment is an index to the 
enormity of the War Savings task. The following tables show the 
per capita wealth of each county as shown upon the tax-books of 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



47 



1918, the per capita investment in War Savings Stamps and the per 
cent of per capita wealth invested in War Savings Stamps during 1918: 

Relation of War Savings Investment to Per Capita Wealth 



County 



Per Capita 
Wealth 



Per Capita Per Cent of 
Investment Per Capita Wealth 
in W.S.S. Invested in W.S.S. 



Alamance $421.37 

Alexander 291.53 

Alleghany 222.98 

Anson 350.87 

Ashe 213.72 

Avery 277.13 

Beaufort 334.02 

Bertie 326.73 

Bladen 338.14 

Brunswick 318.57 

Buncombe 611.27 

Burke 310.16 

Cabarrus • 522.57 

Caldwell 280.59 

Camden 284.31 

Carteret 293.62 

Caswell 214.55* 

Catawba — 370.53 

Chatham 309.21* 

Cherokee 362.63 

Chowan 353.89 

Clay 283.39 

Cleveland 360.81* 

Columbus 371.18 

Craven 455.31 

Cumberland 379.16 

Currituck 284.99 

Dare 167.73 

Davidson 448.33* 

Davie 378.14 

Duplin 367.21 

Durham 985.99 

Edgecombe 468.35 

Forsyth 712.96 

Franklin 321.40* 

Gaston 577.19 

Gates 360.99 

Graham 354.22 

Granville 401.39 

Greene 355.25 

Guilford 525.99* 

Halifax 481.92 

Harnett 389.80 

Haywood 375.67 

Henderson 367.59 

Hertford 364.86 

Hoke 315.74 

Hyde 269.40 

Iredell 427.26 



$14.33 

7.76 

3.54 

14.40 

3.63 

11.71 

8.82 

7.72 

2.88 

1.82 

17.60 

10.86 

19.55 

5.44 

7.24 

8.55 

6.83 

14.26 

8.48 

9.98 

15.13 

3.13 

12.68 

4.86 

10.60 

6.90 

2.87 

5.04 

14.42 

13.50 

7.11 

13.99 

21.31 

24.47 

9.85 

11.41 

7.63 

6.02 

11.02 

15.78 

14.89 

9.69 

7.71 

15.91 

11.78 

11.07 

5.59 

8.04 

14.54 



3.40 
2.66 
1.59 
4.10 
1.698 
4.22 
2.64 
2.36 
.85 
.57 
2.87 
3.50 
3.74 
1.94 
2.54 
2.912 
3.18 
3.85 
2.742 
2.75 
4.27 
1.10 
3.51 
1.31 
2.33 
1.82 
1.07 
3.00 
3.22 
3.57 
1.94 
1.42 
4.34 
3.43 
3.06 
1.99 
2.114 
1.699 
2.745 
4.44 
2.83 
2.01 
1.98 
4.23 
3.20 
3.03 
1.77 
2.98 
3.403 



Standing 

24 
53 
87 
11 
84 

8 
54 
66 
99 
100 
46 
21 
17 
78 
57 
42 
31 
13 
50 
48 

5 
95 
20 
93 
67 
80 
97 
38 
28 
19 
79 
91 

3 
22 
35 
74 
69 
83 
49 

2 
47 
72 
75 

7 

30 
36 
82 
39 
23 



48 



THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



Per Capita Per Capita Per Cent of 

County Wealth Investment Per Capita Wealth Standing 

in W.S.S. Invested in W.S.S. 

Jackson 319.11 6.23 1.95 77 

Johnston 426.88 9.02 2.113 71 

Jones 365.82 11.74 3.21 29 

Lee 420.99 18.25 4.33 4 

Lenoir 421.97 11.42 2.70 51 

Lincoln 371.93 11.51 3.09 33 

Macon 247.19 7.14 2.88 45 

Madison 288.42 10.81 3.77 15 

Martin 518.34 8.67 1.67 85 

McDowell 420.82* 10.35 2.4595 62 

Mecklenburg 595.91 14.55 2.44 64 

Mitchell 232.93 6.86 2.94 40 

Montgomery 341.14 8.59 2.52 59 

Moore 500.79 8.25 1.64 86 

Nash 456.50 5.64 1.24 94 

New Hanover 396.50 11.46 2.89 44 

Northampton 412.36 10.14 2.46 63 

Onslow 458.28 9.19 2.005 73 

Orange 483.73 14.58 3.01 37 

Pamlico 216.75 7.03 3.24 27 

Pasquotank 392.19 13.09 3.337 26 

Pender 328.74* 3.47 1.05 98 

Perquimans 323.59 13.77 4.25 6 

Person 284.99 8.97 3.17 32 

Pitt 451.47 16.56 3.66 18 

Polk 303.23 5.96 1.97 76 

Randolph 321.18 6.85 2.13 70 

Richmond 442.71* 11.01 2.49 60 

Robeson 397.26 6.18 1.55 89 

Rockingham 416.79 12.89 3.09 34 

Rowan 455.91 15.47 3.38 25 

Rutherford 295.24 7.74 2.62 56 

Sampson 299.27 3.53 1.18 96 

Scotland 435.63 6.37 1.46 90 

Stanly 439.05 16.84 3.83 14 

Stokes 272.83 6.89 2.52 58 

Surry 373.88 15.10 4.23 9 

Swain 489.73 12.11 2.47 61 

Transylvania 539.21 7.61 1.41 92 

Tyrrell 313.53 8.25 2.63 55 

Union 327.06 16.40 5.01 1 

Vance 519.27 12.35 2.38 65 

Wake 491.20 10.99 2.24 68 

Warren 347.57 10.12 2.911 43 

Washington 347.09 6.31 1.818 81 

Watauga 205.99 3.21 1.56 88 

Wayne 444.77* 11.92 2.69 52 

Wilkes 218.57 6.39 2.92 41 

Wilson 507.01 19.05 3.76 16 

Yadkin 228.42 8.07 3.97 12 

Yancy 188.95 7.80 4.13 10 

North Carolina __$418.96 $11.36 2.71 

♦Represents 1917 valuation, as the 1918 figures are not available. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



49 



Standing of Counties in the Percentage of Wealth 
Invested in War Savings Stamps 



County Standing 

Union 1 

Greene 2 

Edgecombe 3 

Lee 4 

Chowan 5 

Perquimans 6 

Haywood 7 

Avery 8 

Surry 9 

Yancy 10 

Anson 11 

Yadkin 12 

Catawba 13 

Stanly 14 

Madison 15 

Wilson 16 

Cabarrus 17 

Pitt 18 

Davie 19 

Cleveland 20 

Burke 21 

Forsyth 22 

Iredell 23 

Alamance 24 

Rowan 25 

Pasquotank 26 

Pamlico 27 

Davidson 28 

Jones 29 

Henderson 30 

Caswell 31 

Person 32 

Lincoln 33 

Rockingham 34 

Franklin 35 

Hertford — _ 36 

Orange 37 

Dare 38 

Hyde 39 

Mitchell 40 

Wilkes 41 

Carteret 42 

Warren 43 

New Hanover 44 

Macon 45 

Buncombe 46 

Guilford 47 

Cherokee 48 

Granville 49 

Chatham 50 



County Standing 

Lenoir 51 

Wayne 52 

Alexander 53 

Beaufort 54 

Tyrrell 55 

Rutherford 56 

Camden 57 

Stokes 58 

Montgomery 59 

Richmond 60 

Swain 61 

McDowell 62 

Northampton 63 

Mecklenburg 64 

Vance 65 

Bertie 66 

Craven 67 

Wake 68 

Gates 69 

Randolph 70 

Johnston 71 

Halifax 72 

Onslow 73 

Gaston 74 

Harnett 75 

Polk 76 

Jackson 77 

Caldwell 78 

Duplin 79 

Cumberland 80 

Washington 81 

Hoke 82 

Graham 83 

Ashe 84 

Martin 85 

Moore 86 

Alleghany 87 

Watauga 88 

Robeson 89 

Scotland 90 

Durham 91 

Transylvania 92 

Columbus 93 

Nash 94 

Clay 95 

Sampson 96 

Currituck 97 

Pender 98 

Bladen 99 

Brunswick 100 



m THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

Only one County — Union — invested as much as five per cent of 
its wealth in War Savings Stamps; ten invested as much as four per 
cent; twenty-seven, as much as three per cent; thirty-five, as much 
as two per cent; twenty-five, as much as one per cent; and only two 
Counties — Bladen and Brunswick — invested less than one per cent of 
their wealth in War Savings Stamps. 

North Carolina Compared With Other States 

There is special difficulty in comparing the War Savings record 
of North Carolina with that of other States because, as has been 
stated before, the sales of Stamps in North Carolina have been figured 
at maturity value, while the sales for all the States published by the 
Treasury Department have been figured at the cash value, which varies 
from month to month. The following table,* however, gives the 
standing of the States in cash sales on December 31, 1918: 



State Total Sales 

(Cask) 

Nebraska 27,450,189.85 

Ohio 86,244,733.20 

South Dakota— 9,911,807.81 

Iowa 35,955,734.85 

Oregon 12,887,111.48 

Kansas 26,495,217.75 

Indiana 40,821,176.90 

Vermont 5,120,236.27 

Montana 6,501,569.80 

Washington __ 21,349,745.64 

Nevada 1,439,411.01 

Missouri 44,522,304.61 

Colorado 12,591,100.72 

Wisconsin 30,911,994.53 

California 36,705,533.59 

Utah 5,274,317.28 

New Hampshire 5,252,890.79 

Minnesota 27,390,858.62 

Connecticut 15,667,193.94 

West Virginia 16,124,803.94 

Arizona 2,784,738.32 

Maine 7,929,762.90 

Texas 45,501,752.27 

Idaho 4,347,989.42 

Tennessee 22,119,226.12 



Per Capita Sales Standing Standing 

(Cash) Total Sales Per Cap. Sales 



21.18 


11 


1 


16.39 


1 


2 


16.38 


32 


3 


15.13 


9 


4 


14.94 


28 


5 


14.03 


13 


6 


14.00 


7 


7 


13.90 


42 


8 


13.75 


36 


9 


13.70 


17 


10 


12.93 


47 


11 


12.54 


6 


12 


12.42 


30 


13 


12.19 


10 


14 


11.92 


8 


15 


11.85 


40 


16 


11.78 


41 


17 


11.75 


12 


18 


11.74 


23 


19 


11.35 


22 


20 


10.56 


44 


21 


10.11 


34 


22 


9.94 


5 


23 


9.69 


43 


24 


9.49 


16 


25 



*In the table the District of Columbia, whose total sales amounted to 
$5,882,850.40 and per capita sales $15.93, has been omitted in order that 
the rtandings of the States might be better compared with one another. 
And for the same reason California, New York, and Pennsylvania each 
has been considered as a unit instead of dividing it into sections as was 
done, for the same of convenience, during the campaign. 



9.48 


48 


26 


9.37 


37 


27 


9.32 


45 


28 


9.32 


4 


29 


8.78 


20 


30 


8.66 


39 


31 


8.66 


18 


32 


8.64 


19 


33 


8.17 


3 


34 


7.85 


2 


35 


7.35 


24 


36 


7.32 


27 


37 


7.20 


29 


38 


6.73 


15 


39 


6.50 


25 


40 


6.35 


14 


41 


5.98 


33 


42 


5.57 


38 


43 


5.46 


21 


44 


5.44 


46 


45 


4.78 


26 


46 


4.69 


35 


47 


4.48 


31 


48 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 51 

State Total Sales Per Capita Sales Standing Standing 

(Cash) (Cash) Total Sales Per Cap. Sales 

Wyoming 1,349,487.58 

Rhode Island — 5,917,095.42 

Delaware 2,189,639.17 

Illinois 58,519,777.37 

Oklahoma 20,334,878.66 

North Dakota— 5,758,515.00 

North Carolina 21,085,388.00 

Kentucky 20,951,884.21 

Pennsylvania _ 69,109,645.10 

New York 83,574,795.98 

Mississippi 14,668,967.67 

Louisiana 13,656,584.73 

Arkansas 12,785,006.63 

Michigan 23,262,967.05 

Virginia 14,662,008.82 

Massachusetts 24,786,876.63 

Maryland 8,429,669.48 

Florida 5,746,675.46 

New Jersey 17,050,372.44 

New Mexico — 1,902,412.46 

Georgia 13,758,550.50 

South Carolina 7,713,522.23 

Alabama 10,668,499.20 

United States 1,015,067,471.80 9.64 

Analysis of the above table shows that in total sales, cash value, 
North Carolina stood 18th and in per capita sales 32nd among the 48 
States. In both total and per capita sales North Carolina led all the 
Southern States except Tennessee and Texas. Its total sales lacked only 
about $1,000,000 being as much as the sales of Virginia and South 
Carolina combined, and its per capita sales but $2.53 being as much as 
theirs combined. In its per capita sales it was ahead of Pennsylvania, 
New York, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, and New Jersey, as 
well as the Southern States except Tennessee and Texas. 

Per Capita Savings 

The success of the War Savings Campaign in increasing the savings 
of our people is shown clearly by the per capita savings figures of the 
country in 1914 and again in 1918. The following table, for which 
one is indebted to Mr. Milton W. Harrison of the Savings Bank 
Section of the American Bankers Association, shows the per capita 
savings in Banks and Trust Companies of the United States, of each 
section of the United States, and of each State in 1914 and in 1918, 
together with the percentage of increase : 



52 



THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



Savings in Banks and Trust Companies 



Per Capita 
Savings 1914 

NEW ENGLAND STATES— 

Maine $201.81 

New Hampshire 245.39 

Vermont 244.07 

Massachusetts 240.91 

Rhode Island 258.31 

Connecticut 288.80 

Total 245.78 

EASTERN STATES— 

New York 226.32 

New Jersey 111.84 

Pennsylvania 101.85 

Delaware 77.89 

Maryland 113.76 

Washington, D. C 31.13 

Total 157.25 

SOUTHERN STATES— 

Virginia 31.89 

West Virginia 52.08 

North Carolina 17.20 

South Carolina 21.24 

Georgia 17.53 

Florida 19.50 

Alabama 13.02 

Mississippi 9.20 

Louisiana 23.12 

Texas 5.11 

Arkansas 7.20 

Kentucky 21.08 

Tennessee 17.37 

Total 18.45 

MIDDLE WEST STATES— 

Ohio 85.68 

Indiana 44.57 

Illinois 82.30 

Michigan 96.18 

Wisconsin 74.88 

Minnesota 92.51 

Iowa 114.83 

Missouri 44.77 

Total 72.48 



Per Capita 
Savings 1918 



$244.16 
297.63 
338.43 
291.99 
285.12 
377.59 

295.93 



174.14 



26.73 



Percentage 
Increase 



20.9 
21.3 
38.7 
21.6 
10.3 
30.7 



20.3 



245.88 


8.6 


150.77 


34.8 


106.65 


4.7 


117.71 


51.1 


145.25 


27.7 


75.74 


143.3 



10.7 



44.89 


41.1 


68.92 


32.3 


24.24 


40.9 


33.49 


57.7 


28.14 


60.5 


39.20 


101.1 


13.73 


5.4 


19.29 


108.5 


30.04 


25.6 


10.10 


97.6 


11.06 


53.6 


28.11 


33.3 


28.64 


64.2 



44.9 



128.70 


50.2 


62.61 


40. 


103.52 


25.7 


150.47 


56.4 


108.91 


45.4 


147.14 


59. 


169.46 


47.5 


53.92 


20.4 



100.97 



39.3 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



53 



Per Capita 


Percentage 


Savings 1918 


Increase 


131.55 


279.1 


137.15 


77.8 


101.61 


59.3 


49.01 


66.1 


146.09 


135.4 


101.38 


25.7 


96.06 


54.1 


33.29 


61.1 


26.88 


154.3 


76.78 


101.1 


87.52 


45.8 


69.08 


50 


244.22 


22.8 


61.22 


116.9 


108.54 


44.6 


116.50 


70.2 


171.84 


407.6 


170.05 


46.9 


113.45 


27.3 



Per Capita 
Savings 1914 
WESTERN STATES— 

North Dakota 34.64 

South Dakota 77.02 

Nebraska 63.82 

Kansas 29.43 

Montana 62.05 

Wyoming 80.61 

Colorado 62.33 

New Mexico 20.66 

Oklahoma 10.57 

Total 38.21 

PACIFIC STATES— 

Washington 60.01 

Oregon 46.03 

California 198.74 

Idaho 28.22 

Utah 75.06 

Nevada 68.44 

Arizona 33.85 

Total 122.66 

UNITED STATES 89.11 

Adding $20.00 to the per capita savings of one of the New Eng- 
land States, whose savings were already over $200.00 per capita, meant 
an increase of only ten per cent. But adding that much to the per 
capita savings of North Carolina, whose savings in banks were only 
$24.24 in 1918, meant an increase of nearly 100 per cent. The savings 
of North Carolina now is $35.60 per capita, representing an increase 
of 46.8 per cent, which is directly traceable to the War Savings Cam- 
paign. The savings of the United States now is $123.45 per capita, 
representing an increase of about 8 per cent, directly traceable to the 
War Savings Campaign. A comparison of North Carolina with the 
other States of the Union would show that the War Savings Cam- 
paign increased its per capita savings by a larger percentage than the 
War Savings Campaign increased the per capita savings of any other 
except a Southern State. This is, of course, attributable to the smallness of 
the per capita savings of North Carolina and the other Southern States 
when the War Savings Campaign began ; but the big increase indi- 
cates, none the less, the success of the War Savings Campaign in pro- 
moting savings. 

Enormity of the War Savings Allotment 

The enormity and, in fact, the utter impossibility of accomplish- 
ment of the War Savings task measured in terms of money is shown 
by a comparison of results under different bases of allotment. 

Had the War Savings allotment been made on the basis of bank 
resources on December 31, 1917, as the four Liberty Loan allotments 



54 



THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



were made, it would have been but $12,000,000; on the basis of 
population it was four times that much. Had the Liberty Loan allot- 
ments of the first four loans combined been made on the basis of 
population, it would have been $336,000,000; on the basis of bank 
resources it was only a little more than a third that much. 

Had the War Savings allotment been made on the basis of 
savings deposits on January 1, 1918, it would have been but $12,- 
500,000. Had every dollar asked for War Savings in 1918 been 
drawn out of the savings banks of the country and had each State 
reached its allotment, the savings banks deposits of the country would 
have been depleted only 21 per cent, while the savings banks deposits 
of North Carolina would have been depleted 82 per cent. In other 
words, the War Savings allotment would have taken over four-fifths 
of the accumulated savings of North Carolina as compared with one- 
fifth of the savings of the nation as a whole. 

Had the War Savings allotment been made on the basis of per 
capita wealth — figuring the per capita wealth of the United States at 
$2,500, which is only an estimate, and of North Carolina, at $418.96 — 
it would have been $8,000,000; on the basis of population it was over 
six times that much. 

It appears, therefore, that population was the one basis of allot- 
ment that made the War Savings task humanly impossible of ac- 
complishment. 

Retail Merchants' Division 

What the Retail Merchants' Division of the War Savings Com- 
mittee did is one of the bright spots in the campaign. As has already 
been stated, the division was organized in May, 1918, with Mr. John 
L. Gilmer as State Chairman and Mr. Frank E. Griffith as State 
Secretary, and set to the task of selling $2,312,093.00 worth of War 
Savings Stamps during the year. Under the plan of organization 
already outlined, the State was divided into nine districts. The fol- 
lowing table shows what the State as a whole, what each district, and 
what each city or town accomplished in sales: 



Allotment Amt. Sold 

North Carolina ___$2,312,093 $3,230,352.25 

Districts — 

Elizabeth City— $161,249.00 $189,766.93 

New Bern 520,687.00 353,531.01 

Henderson 257,022.00 306,267.05 

Hamlet 143,414.00 188,036.31 

Raleigh 345,778.00 421,143.73 

Winston-Salem __ 531,447.00 560,048.27 

Charlotte 411,383.00 486,354.62 

Marion 168,693.00 274,839.18 

Asheville 196,762.00 450,364.85 



Per Cent 




Sold 




Chairman 


139 


John L. Gilmer 


117 


w 


. P. Duff 


67 


L. 


H. Cutler, Jr. 


119 


R. 


G. S. Davis 


131 


J. 


Paul Leonard 


121 


William Perlstein 


105 


F. 


E. Griffith 


118 


J. 


F. Morris 


162 


J. 


H. Tate 


228 


Archibald Nichols 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



55 



Allotment Amt. Sold 
100% Towns— 

Ahoskie 4,572.00 5,127.00 

Albemarle 10,474.00 11,963.10 

Andrews 5,083.00 19,041.25 

Apex 4,219.00 8,601.25 

Areola 1,100.00 7,240.00 

Asheboro 9,682.00 13,831.50 

Asheville 92,871.00 276,001.00 

Atlantic 1,000.00 1,656.00 

Ayden 4,702.00 4,802.50 

Badin 12,319.00 13,571.75 

Bakersville 1,750.00 2,300.00 

Battleboro 1,850.00 5,058.00 

Beaufort 12,293.00 25,981.40 

Belmont 5,900.00 7,176.25 

Benson 4,602.00 10,678.37 

Bladenboro 2,300.00 2,577.35 

Bonlee 500.00 10,375.00 

Bostic 1,000.00 1,705.00 

Brevard 4,547.00 4,695.80 

Bryson City 4,224.00 12,753.75 

Burgaw 4,732.00 6,226.75 

Burlington 23,798.00 60,918.27 

Cane River 1,250.00 4,008.25 

Canton 6,300.00 7,394.89 

Cerro Gordo 1,900.00 9,835.75 

Chadbourne 6,147.00 6,976.00 

Chapel Hill 5,686.00 10,471.91 

Chapenoke 1,400.00 4,021.23 

Charlotte 168,367.00 201,527.00 

Cherokee 800.00 14,015.00 

Clarkton 2,300.00 3,565.00 

Clayton 7,132.00 13,928.00 

Cliffside 1,730.00 9,447.00 

Clyde 1,750.00 2,660.50 

Concord 43,139.00 56,519.50 

Connelly Springs 1,750.00 6,022.12 

Crabtree 800.00 4,332.25 

Dallas 5,262.00 6,274.00 

Dunn 9,022.00 14,366.80 

Durham 90,292.00 90,418.50 

Edenton 13,814.00 15,135.85 

Elizabeth City 41,639.00 74,707.28 

Elkin 6,187.00 19,375.00 

Ellerbee 1,700.00 2,250.00 

Elm City 4,219.00 12,251.25 

Elon College 1,100.00 1,622.28 

Ellenboro 1,500.00 2,000.00 

Farmville 5,400.00 28,066.25 

Franklin 1,750.00 3,867.00 

Franklinton 6,141.00 6,922.28 

Franklinville 4,050.00 5,265.00 

Four Oaks 1,750.00 ■ 2,090.00 



Per Cent 

Sold 



Chairman 



112 F. H. Weaver 

113 W. H. Snuggs 
374 M. H. Whitaker 
204 Samuel Watkins 
658 W. R. Reel 

143 S. B. Stedman 

296 Archibald Nichols 

165 Dennis Mason 

102 R. W. Smith . 

110 J. W. Frazier 

131 W. B. Young 

274 M. C. Braswell 

211 D. M. Jones 

122 W. R. Suggs 

232 Preston Woodall 

112 R. C. Bridger 

2075 I. H. Dunlap 

170 L. S. Thomas 

103 B. W. Trantham 
302 J. L. Gibson 
131 J. L. Harrell 

251 Lynn W. Whitted 

320 R. A. Radford 

117 J. T. Duckworth 

517 J. L. Williamson 

112 C. F. Shelton 

181 R. Clyde Andrews 

287 G. D. Towe 

113 W. T. McCoy 
1752 T. M. Jenkins 

155 J. A. Singletary 

195 J. D. Barbour 

546 Z. O. Jenkins 

152 Edwin Fincher 

131 J. E. Davis 
338 D. P. Hudson 
541 F. W. Messer 

119 E. M. Rhyne 

159 Marvin Wade 

100 L. B. Markham 

109 D. B. Liles 

179 W. P. Duff 

311 E. F. McNeer 

132 J. R. Bennett 
290 W. M. Wells 
147 H. H. Kimsey 

133 A. S. Harrill 

579 A. H. Joyner 

221 C. W. Hames 

112 R. D. Collins 

130 J. H. Marley 

114 J. G. Massengile 



56 



THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



Allotment Amt. Sold 

Goldsboro 30,229.00 31,201.31 

Greensboro 77,852.00 81,947.50 

Green Mountain _ 1,000.00 1,305.00 

Hamilton 1,900.00 6,260.00 

Hamlet 10,755.00 15,691.00 

Heaton 800.00 2,075.47 

Henderson 22,738.00 56,611.95 

Hendersonville __ 16,497.00 33,502.25 

Hertford 10,112.00 14,934.75 

Hickory 20,644.00 28,288.75 

High Point 47,049.00 49,605.25 

Hillsboro 5,006.00 13,875.07 

Hookerton 3,100.00 18,953.63 

Hot Springs 2,150.00 7,301.50 

Huntersville 4,392.00 8,237.00 

Jackson 3,994.00 5,978.83 

Jackson Springs _ 1,000.00 1,161.70 

Jonesboro 4,669.00 9,739.75 

Kings Mountain _ 10,977.00 14,725.50 

Kinston 34,626.00 53,736.50 

Lake Toxaway __ 1,100.00 4,523.50 

Laurinburg 11,493.00 16,147.25 

Lexington 20,605.00 41,091.86 

Louisburg 8,786.00 12,224.20 

Macon 2,600.00 2,715.00 

Madison 5,114.00 14,025.25 

Maiden 3,919.00 4,302.75 

Manteo 2,750.00 4,650.50 

Marion 6,617.00 48,317.00 

Marshall 4,839.00 8,380.00 

Mars Hill 1,750.00 2,156.00 

Maggie 1,750.00 4,588.76 

Mocksville 5,249.00 6,773.44 

Moncure 900.00 2,053.58 

Monroe 20,205.00 27,037.50 

Mooresville 16,830.00 17,400.00 

Morehead City __ 10,091.00 12,352.17 

Morganton 13,423.00 59,976.50 

Mt. Airy 19,026.00 27,328.25 

Mt. Gilead 4,668.00 10,541.32 

Mt. Olive 5,062.00 19,372.00 

Mt. Holly 5,301.00 9,244.25 

Murphy 5,735.00 11,877.25 

Marshville 2,750.00 7,600.00 

Nashville 4,050.00 9,990.92 

Norlina 4,162.00 5,630.15 

N. Wilkesboro — 12,414.00 13,163.72 

Oak City 1,750.00 2,046.00 

Old Fort 3,994.00 5,326.50 

Oxford 14,937.00 17,410.75 

Ore Hill 900.00 1,050.00 



Per Cent 
Sold Chairman 

103 Graves J. Smith 
105 C. H. McKnight 
130 J. W. Howell 

329 P. L. Salsburg 

145 L. A. Patrick 

259 J. M. Heaton 

205 R. G. S. Davis 

203 John T. Wilkins 

147 J. C. Blanchard 

137 J. A. Moretz 

105 Ed. Freeze 
277 C. M. Andrews 
611 N. F. Palmer 
349 Ira Plemmons 
187 S. C. Choat 

149 E. S. Bowers 

116 W. L. Holliday 
208 R. A. Watson 

134 C. Mauney 
161 Dan Quinerly 

411 C. R. McNeely 

140 A. F. Blue 

150 T. C. Hinkle 
139 G. W. Ford 

104 Lawrence Coleman 
274 A. W. Daniel 

109 S. M. Finger 

168 C. W. Davis 

730 J. H. Tate 

173 E. R. Tweed 
123 R. L. Gibbs 
262 F. G. Rippetoe 
129 Rufus B. Sanford 
229 T. B. Maddox 
133 J. Watt Hamilton 
103 C. A. Mayhew 
122 R. H. Dowdy 

446 Nathan Lazarus 

143 J. F. Prather 

226 T. R. Baldwin, Jr. 

382 S. D. Broadhurst 

174 H. R. Lewis 
207 C. A. Brown 
276 J. M. Edwards 

246 R. M. Collins 

135 H. C. Fleming 

106 J. E. Spainhour 

117 H. S. Everetts 
133 I. L. Copeland 
116 R. W. White 
116 D. K. Taylor 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



57 



Allotment 

Pee Dee 3,150.00 

Pikeville 1,950.00 

Proctor 800.00 

Pleasant Garden 500.00 

Raeford 4,050.00 

Ramseur 5,058.00 

Rockingham 10,667.00 

Rocky Mount 39,852.00 

Roxboro 7,054.00 

Rural Hall 1,750.00 

Robbinsville 1,200.00 

Salisbury 35,406.00 

Saluda 1,750.00 

Sanford 6,795.00 

Shelby 9,987.00 

Siler City 4,395.00 

Smithfield 6,667.00 

Snow Hill 3,600.00 

Southern Pines __ 1,994.00 

Spencer 18,036.00 

Spring Hope 5,962.00 

Stantonsburg 900.00 

Statesville 22,763.00 

Stem 1,000.00 

Stoneville 2,700.00 

Stovall 1,500.00 

Summerfield 1,000.00 

Sylva 3,994.00 

South Mills 1,250.00 

Spruce Pine 2,100.00 

Tarboro 20,412.00 

Thomasville 19,190.00 

Trenton 3,900.00 

Troy 5,242.00 

Tryon 4,116.00 

Valdese 1,500.00 

Wadesboro 10,861.00 

Wagram 3,700.00 

Wake Forest 7,144.00 

Warrenton 4,725.00 

Waynesville 9,940.00 

Whitakers 4,106.00 

Wilson 33,248.00 

Windsor 3,494.00 

Winston-Salem __ 112,394.00 

Winton 3,994.00 

Zebulon 1,700.00 

Winfall 1,750.00 





Per Cent 


Amt. Sold 


Sold 


Chairman 


5,298.83 


167 


W. R. Boggan 


2,516.00 


128 


W. E. Hales 


1,374.80 


171 


J. G. Horner 


1,173.25 


234 


C. H. McKnight 


9,493.48 


234 


T. A. Nesbitt 


5,709.75 


112 


C. B. Smith 


40,780.25 


382 


E. A. Allen 


40,370.33 


126 


P. L. Thigpen 


13,235.75 


172 


A. M. Burns 


4,155.00 


237 


A. L. Payne 


2,519.50 


209 


Walter Wiggins 


39,566.50 


112 


C. G. McCurdy 


3,293.00 


182 


Dr. G. R. Little 


20,904.00 


307 


L. P. Wilkins 


16,821.71 


169 


L. P. Holland 


12,986.25 


296 


J. Spreight Wrenn 


6,671.25 


100 


H. C. Woodall 


8,035.75 


223 


W. T. Exum 


3,400.58 


176 


C. T. Patch 


20,831.75 


115 


H. P. Brandis 


9,472.00 


159 


B. F. Wood 


1,800.00 


200 


W. H. Applewhite 


44,501.50 


196 


A. W. Bunch 


5,562.76 


556 


J. H. Gooch 


2,845.00 


105 


R. L. Stoneville 


3,720.00 


248 


J. G. Harris 


1,885.00 


188 


C. H. McKnight 


6,150.50 


155 


M. Buchannon 


2,913.00 


233 


W. J. Eure 


4,090.00 


195 


S. B. Cannon 


25,095.27 


123 


J. E. Simmons 


25,753.25 


134 


J. A. Morris 


5,473.71 


112 


S. H. Haywood 


5,813.90 


110 


Barna Allen 


5,763.00 


140 


B. L. Ballinger 


2,920.00 


194 


J. M. Brinkley 


72,547.25 


658 


L. D. Rivers 


10,314.15 


279 


W. G. Buie 


11,090.00 


155 


W. I. Holding 


7,077.13 


171 


Alpheus Jones 


12,146.45 


122 


S. H. Bushnell 


4,118.00 


100 


Z. G. Mann 


38,551.75 


116 . 


—G. T. Fulgher 


18,085.00 


517 


J. T. Stokes 


155,497.00 


138 


J. F. Morris 


16,718.75 


418 


W. H. Lassiter 



3,988.00 236 R. D. Nichols 
2,050.00 101 W. P. Duff 



58 



THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



Allotment 

Towns Less than 100% 
Aberdeen 4,387.00 

Bath 1,600.00 

Belhaven 14,159.00 

Bessemer City ___ 7,567.00 

Bethel 1,700.00 

Biscoe 4,219.00 

Black Mountain _ 2,100.00 

Bixby 500.00 

Belvedere 1,750.00 

Candor 1,000.00 

Carthage 5,507.00 

Cherryville 5,506.00 

Clinton 5,450.00 

Columbia 5,456.00 

Columbus 1,500.00 

Cornelius 7,301.00 

Creedmore 1,500.00 

Currituck C. H.__ 1,000.00 

Dellwood 800.00 

Dover 3,750.00 

East Bend 5,287.00 

Elizabethtown 2,300.00 

Fairmont 4,387.00 

Faison 4,050.00 

Fayetteville 34,875.00 

Forest City 10,879.00 

Fremont 4,707.00 

Garysburg 1,600.00 

Gastonia 28,505.00 

Gibson 3,700.00 

Gibsonville :__ 5,087.00 

Glen Alpine 1,750.00 

Graham 12,319.00 

Greenville 20,299.00 

Halifax 2,750.00 

Haw River 5,256.00 

Hobgood 1,750.00 

Hope Mills 4,700.00 

Harris 800.00 

Kenly 3,949.00 

LaGrange 5,456.00 

Leaksville — ) 

Spray '. \ 20,205.00 

Draper — J 

Lenoir 16,650.00 

Liberty 1,750.00 





Per Cent 


Amt. Sold 


Sold 


Chairman 


1,036.25 


24 


F. H. Weaver 


10.00 


.6 


T. A. Brooks 


61.25 


A 


D. Lesofsky 


2,884.05 


38 


J. H. Wilkins 


500.00 


29 


H. V. Staton 


1,918.75 


45 


A. W. Burt 


1,150.00 


54 


W. H. McMurray 


200.00 


40 


J. H. Robertson 


500.00 


20 


W. P. Duff 


300.00 


30 


D. S. Hurley 


540.00 


10 


F. S. Cole 


3,343.93 


41 


L. C. McDowlel 


4,336.50 


79 


H. L. Boyd 


1,407.00 


25 


S. J. Holloway 


236.00 


15 


C. E. Shore 


1,105.00 


15 


T. P. Howard 


799.00 


52 


A. B. Allen 


745.25 


74 




640.00 


80 


C. A. Campbell 


2,385.00 


63 


W. L. Bell 


3,222.25 


61 


H. E. Davis 


1,864.75 


81 


Jas. H. Clark 


2,598.15 


39 


W. N. Hubbard 


416.38 


10 


Malcohn McKays 


30,687.36 


88 


Jacob Stein 


4,052.00 


36 


P. D. Harrell 


1,088.25 


23 


C. R. Aycock 


665.00 


41 


W. H. Joyner 


10,854.75 


38 


W. B. Morris 


1,275.00 


34 


Vesper Adams 


3,750.00 


73 


J. W. Burke 


1,550.00 


92 


A. M. Davis 


9,370.00 


75 


W. P. Green 


13,544.50 


66 


Geo. B. W. Hadley 


1,325.10 


48 


T. S. Dickens 


3,681.75 


68 


J. W. Simmons 


610.25 


35 


Leon G. Shields 


553.50 


12 


J. A. Bynum 


388.07 


48 


L. Williamson 


2,190.00 


55 


R. A. Hale 


227.95 


4 


R. M. Harper 


10,621.00 


52 


R. E. Wall 


10,684.00 


64 


H. W. Courtney 


1,059.25 


60 


A. L. McPherson 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 



59 



Allotment Amt. Sold 

Lincolnton 7,443.00 4,737.00 

Lillington 2,100.00 1,096.00 

Lowell 4,950.00 1,902.25 

Lumberton 11,638.00 3,154.40 

Marshallburg ___ 800.00 455.65 

Maxton 6,539.00 1,945.00 

Maysville 3,919.00 1,334.05 

McAdensville 4,864.00 386.00 

Mebane 5,116.00 3,993.14 

Merry Oaks 3,700.00 138.50 

Mt. Pleasant 3,919.00 2,335.00 

Murfreesboro 4,962.00 1,298.27 

New Bern 49,307.00 17,613.81 

Newton 11,464.00 6,534.25 

Northampton RPD 1,000.00 661.25 

Oriental 3,994.00 1,335.00 

Pantego 2,500.00 935.00 

Pittsboro 4,390.00 3,544.00 

Plymouth 10,727.00 4,231.00 

Pollocksville 2,900.00 925.50 

Powells Point — 1,000.00 688.00 

Raleigh 95,016.00 60,603.00 

Randleman 9,070.00 830.00 

Red Springs 5,389.00 4,024.47 

Reidsville 23,859.00 8,223.50 

Roanoke Rapids _ 8,267.00 1,186.90 

Robertsville 4,440.00 172.58 

Roper 5,175.00 4,373.14 

Rosemary .6,412.00 2,895.56 

Rowland 4,050.00 870.00 

Rutherfordton 5,256.00 4,311.52 

Rich Square 2,000.00 301.00 

Salemburg 3,700.00 850.00 

Scotland Neck ___ 8,543.00 35.00 

Seaboard 1,850.00 1,309.00 

Selma 6,588.00 725.00 

Severn 1,600.00 105.00 

Star 800.00 70.00 

Stokesdale 1,950.00 320.00 

Stoney Point 800.00 95.50 

Toecane 1,000.00 727.25 

Tyner 800.00 209,00 

Union Mills 1,200.00 685.00 

Vanceboro 3,900.00 26.80 

Vandemere 3,100.00 1,474.50 

Vein Mountain __ 800.00 325.75 



Per Cent 

Sold 



Chairman 



63 J. L. Thompson 

52 H. F. Atkins 

38 J. Lynn Roberson 

26 R. H. Crichton 

57 E. H. Davis 

29 J. E. Morrison 

34 A. C. Foscue 

8 J. W. Little 

78 H. E. Wilkinson 

3 L. G. Gunter 
59 H. E. Foil 
26 E. N. Evans 

35 L. H. Cutler, Jr. 
57 C. D. Drum 

66 

33 A. W. Haskins 

57 C. P. Aycock 

80 A. H. London 

40 W. R. Hampton 

32 H. A. Chadwick 

69 W. P. Duff 

63 William Perlstein 

9 J. G. Brown 

74 John J. Thrower 

34 R. H. Tucker 

14 J. W. House 

4 R. L. Smith 

84 J. W. Williams 

45 Geo. L. Hayes, Jr. 

21 J. McR. Bracy 

82 W. J. McDaniel 

15 E. S. Bowers 

23 A. E. Royall 

4 Lewis B. Suitor 

76 R. W. Edwards 

11 W. L. Stancil 

6 C. H. Britt 

8 Ernest Freeman 

16 D. P. Lemons 
10 J. M. Miller 

72 Blevins Bros. 

26 W. P. Duff 



57 

6 

47 
40 



J. D. Morris 

W. C. White 
C. H. Flowers 
H. M. Whitaker 



60 



THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 



Allotment 

Walnut Cove 3,487.00 

Washington 30,744.00 

Weldon 9,893.00 

Wendel 4,050.00 

Williamston 7,789.00 

Wilmington 127,451.00 

Woodland 1,250.00 

Woodlawn 1,850.00 

Waxhaw 4,130.00 

Yanceyville 1,750.00 





Per Cent 


Amt. Sold 


Sold 


Chairman 


1,999.25 


57 


P. T. Harrington 


12,818.41 


41 


F. S. Worthy 


8,172.75 


82 


L. W. Murphy 


3,608.00 


89 


Oscar Griswald 


137.00 


2 


Simon Rutenburg 


104,920.49 


82 


George Honnet 


335.00 


26 


E. S. Bowers 


1,500.00 


81 


M. L. Good 


263.00 


6 


J. A. Williams 



1,100.00 



62 



W. N. Harrelson 



The following are the twenty leading towns of the State in the 
sale of War Savings Stamps by their retail merchants: 



Per Cent Allot- 
Toivn ment Sold 

Bonlee 2075 

Cherokee 1752 

Marion 730 

Areola 658 

Wadesboro 658 

Hookerton 611 

Farmville 579 

Stem 556 

Cliffside 546 

Crabtree 541 

Cerro Gordo 517 

Windsor 517 

Morganton 446 

Winton 418 

Lake Toxaway 411 

Mt. Olive 382 

Rockingham 382 

Andrews 374 

Hot Springs 349 

Connelly Springs 338 



jnding 


Chairman 


1 


I. H. Dunlap 


2 


T. M. Jenkins 


3 


J. H. Tate 


4 


W. R. Reel 


5 


L. D. Rivers 


6 


N. F. Palmer 


7 


A. H. Joyner 


8 


J. H. Gooch 


9 


Z. O. Jenkins 


10 


F. W. Messer 


11 


J. L. Williamson 


12 


J. T. Stokes 


13 


Nathan Lazarus 


14 


W. H. Lassiter 


15 


C. R. McNeely 


16 


S. D. Broadhurst 


17 


E. A. Allen 


18 


M. H. Whitaker 


19 


Ira Plemmons 


20 


D. P. Hudson 



The following is a record of the merchants' division in the seven 
largest cities of the State: 



Quota 

Asheville % 92,871.00 

Winston-Salem __ 112,394.00 

Charlotte 168,367.00 

Greensboro 77,852.00 

Durham 90,292.00 

Wilmington 127,451.00 

Raleigh 95,016.00 



Sales 


Per Cent 


Chairman 


276,001.00 


296 


Archibald Nichols 


155,497.00 


138 


J. F. Morris 


201,527.00 


113 


W. T. McCoy 


81,947.00 


105 


C. H. McKnight 


90,418.50 


100 


L. B. Markham 


104,920.49 


82 


George Honnet 


60,603.00 


62 


William Perlstein 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 61 

The Retail Merchants of North Carolina led the Nation in sales, 
as shown by the following excerpt from a recent letter of congratulation 
by Mr. Harold Braddock, Director, Savings Division, War Loan Or- 
ganization, Washington : 

"It may be of interest to you to know that in no other State has 
the Retail Merchants' Division accomplished such gratifying sales. On 
several occasions the smaller towns have succeeded in overselling their 
quotas to the amount of four hundred per cent, but no State has made 
a record to be even compared with yours." 

Negroes 

What the Negroes of North Carolina, who constitute 36 per cent 
of the total population, actually accomplished in War Savings cannot 
be determined with any degree of accuracy for the reason that no 
separate records either of pledges or sales were made for the races. In 
pledges it was noteworthy that the 14 black counties of the State 
pledged a larger per cent of their allotment than the State as a whole, 
that the 19 counties that subscribed or oversubscribed their allotment 
had a larger percentage of Negroes than the State as a whole, that 
the 49 Counties that had more than an average colored population 
pledged above the average of the State, that the 51 Counties that 
pledged 15 per cent over the average for the State had 4 per cent 
over an average of the colored population of the State. In sales the 
record of the Negroes is equally incomplete. No effort whatever has 
been made to ascertain the amount of Stamps owned by Negroes. But 
it is worth noting that Edgecombe County — one of the two Counties 
of the State that oversold its allotment, the other one being Forsyth — 
has a population 60 per cent colored. The following table shows the 
per cent of colored population and the per cent of its War Savings 
allotment sold in each of the 14 black Counties: 

Per Cent 
Colored 
County 

Warren 66 

Halifax 64 

Edgecombe 60 

Hertford 59 

Bertie 58 

Northampton 58 

Craven 57 

Scotland 55 

Chowan 54 

Anson 52 

Caswell 51 

Vance 50 

Perquimans 50 

Pasquotank 50 

North Carolina 36 



Per Cent 




Allotment 




Sold 


Stand 


50.64 


48 


48.59 


51 


106.58 


2 


55.35 


39 


38.61 


67 


50.72 


47 


53.03 


45 


31.87 


80 


75.66 


13 


72.02 


20 


34.19 


79 


61.79 


29 


68.86 


24 


65.48 


26 


56.80 





62 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

Six of the fourteen black counties sold more than the average per 
cent for the State, ten of them rank in the first half and six of them 
in the first third of the Counties. So it appears, beyond a doubt, that 
the Negro either bought his proportionate part of War Savings Stamps 
or else made it possible for the white person near him to buy more 
than his part. The colored people did credit to their race in the War 
Savings Campaign. 

North Carolina's Record in Dollars 

If one measures North Carolina's War Savings record in terms 
of money he finds that the record is incomplete. That is, North Caro- 
lina, asked to sell among its people $48,666,380, sold only $27,649,397 ; 
asked to sell 100 per cent of its allotment, it sold only 56.80 per cent; 
asked to invest $20 per capita, it invested only $11.36; asked to invest 
nearly 5 per cent of its wealth in War Savings Stamps, it invested 
only 2.71 per cent. 

Reasons Why Allotment Not Attained 

At present the reasons why North Carolina did not and could 
not attain its allotment are clearly understood by the people; but in 
the years to come the obstacles confronting the campaign may be for- 
gotten or overlooked and the campaign itself stand as the only un- 
completed War obligation of the State. For the sake of history, there- 
fore, it is proper here to set down the difficulties — some of them in- 
superable — that the campaign had to encounter. 

Other Campaigns 

In the first place, the War Savings Campaign was sidetracked, 
off and on, the year round to give the main line to other War efforts. 
In April, for instance, it had to give way for the Third Liberty Loan; 
in May, for the Red Cross Campaign; in September, for the Fourth 
Liberty Loan ; and in November, for the Allied War Relief Campaign. 
Only during the lean months of June, July, and August did War 
Savings have the right-of-way. 

Epidemic of Influenza 

In the second place, the War Savings Campaign was almost com- 
pletely paralyzed by the first epidemic of influenza — the one in October. 
October had been given over to pledge-redemption in order not to in- 
terfere with the Fourth Liberty Loan subscriptions. The clerical 
work incident to the pledge-redemption campaign and the field work 
necessary to keep the clerical work going were both practically stopped 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 63 

by the epidemic. At one time six of the eight field representatives were 
out on account of the influenza. The series of district conferences 
in November to plan for the December drive was greatly affected. 
As has already been stated, the conference at Raleigh had to be held in 
sections, the one at Asheville had to be moved to Hendersonville, the 
one at Salisbury had to be moved to Statesville, and the attendance at 
all of them was greatly reduced. 

Armistice 

In the midst of the November conferences came the signing of 
the Armistice and the end of fighting. At once the people felt that 
the War was over, that the Government did not need any more money. 
Plans had been laid at the district conferences to combat a reaction 
by having the War workers in every community meet on Thanks- 
giving Day. But once more the elements were at enmity with War 
Savings plans and the Thanksgiving Day meetings were rained out 
quite as completely as the North Carolina Day meetings had been 
rained out in December, 1917. Then, too, a recrudescence of the in- 
fluenza neutralized what enthusiasm and determination to put the 
State "over the top" had been engendered during the November con- 
ferences. 

Prices of Cotton and Peanuts 

But in spite of the reaction due to the Armistice and the enerva- 
tion due to the influenza, the people of North Carolina were pre- 
paring to make a determined effort during December. Then it was 
that two other untoward events arose. Farmers of the Eastern 
counties had incurred expense of production and in June had pledged 
to buy Stamps on the basis of thirty-five cent cotton and ten-cent 
peanuts, which they had been led to expect. But during the Fall 
the price of cotton had dropped to twenty-five cents and the peanut 
market was sluggish even at five cents. Local bankers had financed 
farmers in making and housing their crops and expected to receive 
payment of the outstanding notes during the Fall. But the farmers 
did not market their crops, waiting for better prices, and consequently, 
the banks were unable to lend them money with which to redeem 
their War Savings pledges. The result was that thousands of per- 
fectly good War Savings pledges were unredeemed on December 31. 

Shortage of Supply of Stamps 

On the last few days of the campaign the shortage of stamps 
was general throughout the State. Rocky Mount and Winston-Salem, 
for instance, were completely out of stamps on December 30 and 31. 
Where the postoffices, banks, and other agencies were properly ad- 



64 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

vised, they received the money tendered for Stamps, gave their receipts 
for it, and delivered the Stamps as early in the New Year as they were 
received. But it is to be feared that a large percentage of the agencies 
did not adopt this plan and lost the sales altogether. 

That many who were unable, for one reason or another, to buy 
the Stamps in December for which they had pledged, redeemed their 
pledges, in spirit if not in letter, by purchasing Stamps in January is 
shown by the fact, as announced in Washington, that North Carolina 
during January led all the Southern States east of the Mississippi both 
in total and per capita sales. The January sales of the other Southern 
States east of the Mississippi is as follows: 

Total Sales Per Capita Sales 

State in January in January 

Virginia 1,290,784 .58 

North Carolina 2,043,184 .82 

South Carolina 838,013 .50 

Georgia 1,569,042 .53 

Florida 308,355 .82 

Alabama 634,706 .26 

Mississippi 1,005,790 .50 

Louisiana 793,123 .42 

Tennessee 1,086,274 .47 

When one considers these difficulties of the War Savings Cam- 
paign — the other War efforts that side-tracked it, the epidemic, the 
Armistice, the drop in the prices of crops, and the shortage of Stamps — 
he must conclude that the campaign was a success even though measured 
in terms of money. 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 65 



CHAPTER VI. 

The Permanent Good of the 
War Savings Campaign 

The success of the War Savings Campaign should not be judged 
so much by the amount of money it turned into the Treasury of the 
United States as by the effect it had upon the life and character of 
the people. The tangible fruit of the campaign, of course, is twenty- 
seven and one-half million dollars saved in 1918 to be paid back in 
1923 to constitute an immense working capital to be distributed among, 
perhaps, seven hundred and fifty thousand people of every walk of life. 
Altogether incalculable is the good that this huge sum should do in 
paying wages, developing resources, building schools and churches and 
in getting young people started in the world. But may this twenty- 
seven and one-half dollars not be merely the seed from which will 
grow many blessings that cannot be counted in terms of money or 
even of material prosperity. 

At the end of the campaign of 1918 a questionaire was sub- 
mitted to each county chairman in which the question was asked: "In 
what respects do you consider that the War Savings Campaign of 
1918 did the people of your county good?" The following is a sym- 
posium of their answers. 

Thrift 

The War Savings Campaign made our jpeople more thrifty. 
Thrift is the virtue which manifests itself in habits of industry and 
economy. 

The War Savings Campaign made people more industrious by 
convincing them of the need of increased production and by arousing 
in them the desire to produce more as a means of helping to win the 
war and to serve humanity. The new spirit of industry has manifested 
itself in the farm-boys planting Victory Acres and the farm-girls Thrift 
Gardens, in boys and girls everywhere earning money with which to 
buy Stamps, and in people of all ages and circumstances working with 
a new motive. 

The War Savings Campaign made people more economical by 
convincing them of the sin of waste, by showing them how they could 
help win the War, by economizing in the consumption of labor and 
material, and in offering them a safe and convenient means of in- 
vesting their savings. For the first time, the child with his pennies 
saved and the laborer with his dollar taken from his pay-envelope had 



66 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

a way to invest their savings at any time and at any one of over eight 
thousand places in the State by purchasing Government bonds — 
called War Savings Certificates — that bore as good or better rate of 
interest than Liberty Bonds themselves. It opened the eyes of business 
men — even of those who had considered themselves prudent — to the 
value of small items. If millions of dollars could be accumulated by 
saving of quarters, then millions could be scattered by the waste of 
quarters. Hereafter men will be more regardful of the small leaks 
and extravagancies in their business. 

Patriotism 

The War Savings Campaign made our people more patriotic. In 
the beginning of the campaign Governor Bickett said that it would 
be worth while if it did nothing more than teach our people the 
necessity and righteousness of the War. The chorus of opinions of 
the County Chairmen is that the campaign not only reconciled our 
people to the War, but even made them hearty supporters of it in 
sections where real opposition to the War had existed. One could 
not make a War Savings appeal without at the same time explaining 
the necessity and maintaining the righteousness of the War. War 
Savings speakers, who went into every nook and corner of the State, 
to a greater extent than speakers have ever done before, made them- 
selves real educators of the people. They told the people in the re- 
mote sections what the War was about, how it started, why we were 
in it, what defeat would cost us, what victory might cost us, and 
what part each one of us had in it. The people were made to see 
that it was a people's rather than a Government's or an Administration's 
War. They were made to see that they, themselves, were warriors 
the same as their boys in khaki were. For the first time the people 
realized their partnership with the Government. What else could 
have created 750,000 Government bond-holders in a State in which 
not over 8,000 people had even so much as seen a Government bond 
before the War. 

Not only did the people come to have a new interest in and a 
more active loyalty to their country but they came to have a new 
vision of the world and their part in it. When the soldiers return 
with a new interest in world problems — as they most certainly will — 
they will find a people who know infinitely more about and are in- 
finitely more interested in the world at large tHan they were before 
the War enlarged their horizon. 

Community Spirit 

The War Savings Campaign helped to create a finer community 
spirit. It brought town and county together. It put politicians, busi- 
ness men, and preachers on the same platform to speak or on the same 



IN NORTH CAROLINA 67 

team to solicit pledges. It made yoke-fellows of Democrats, Republicans 
and Socialists. It stimulated local pride. There was a desire for 
North Carolina to secure its allotment; and a greater desire for the 
county to secure its share; but the greatest desire of all was for ihe 
township or ward to do its part. Consequently, men and women of 
every class and calling worked together in a common cause and here- 
after it will be infinitely easier for any worthy cause to command a 
united community support. In one of the towns of North Carolina, 
for instance, it had been conceded that the people would not work 
together. A new man in the community — a preacher — saw in the 
War Savings Campaign his opportunity to start community team work. 
One of the first day-time mass meetings of the history of the town 
was a War Savings meeting. The people rallied to that heartily. It 
was regarded as really the beginning of a community spirit in that 
town that would thereafter make possible all kinds of worthy commu- 
nity efforts. 

Race Relations 

The War Savings Campaign did much to improve the relations 
between the white and colored races in North Carolina. What prob- 
lems the returning colored soldier may give rise to cannot be dis- 
cerned yet awhile. But whatever these problems may be, the War 
Savings Campaign will have already done much to put the people of 
both races into the proper frame of mind to deal with them wisely 
and solve them satisfactorily. 

In the War Savings Campaign, the Negro had upon his shoulder 
the responsibility of doing a full citizen's part. That is, he was ex- 
pected to invest $20 per capita the same as anybody else. The best 
men of his race — business men and professional — devoted their time 
and thought to the War Savings cause. The voice of community 
builders and patriots was heard above the din of politicians and race 
agitators. The white people of the State have learned who the real, 
dependable leaders among the Negroes are and have a new apprecia- 
tion of their worth. The colored people, themselves, on the other 
hand, now know better than ever the constructive leaders of the white 
race. Controversial matters- — politics and social life — were absent from 
their thought. A great common cause of their country's safety and 
humanity's welfare was uppermost in the thoughts of speakers and 
audiences. The colored people of the State saw the white people at 
their best and the white people saw the colored people at their best. 
The colored War Savings workers of North Carolina constitute the 
nucleus of a non-political organization of Negroes with whom the 
white people of the State may safely deal in grappling with any 
race problems that may arise in the near future. 



68 THE WAR-SAVINGS CAMPAIGN OF 1918 

Self-Reliance 

The War Savings Campaign made our people more self-confident 
and self-reliant. It showed them how to become economically inde- 
pendent citizens. More than that, it astounded them to realize their 
own ability. It had taken them over two hundred years to aaccumulate 
savings of $24 per capita. Whoever would have dared say that they 
could increase their per capita savings by nearly fifty per cent in 
one year's time! Yet that is just what they have done. Knowing 
North Carolina as it is — five hundred miles in length, sparsely settled 
in many sections, with three counties without a railroad and two with- 
out a bank, with one-third of its population colored and with colored 
people constituting two-thirds of the population in some sections — 
whoever would have dared say that in one year's time one person in 
three — white and black, man, woman, and child — would become an 
investor in Government bonds to the extent of $11.00 per capita, not 
to mention the investment in Liberty Bonds. Yet that very thing has 
been accomplished. Our people have a new confidence in and reliance 
upon themselves, and hereafter a problem — even an imposing one — 
will be accepted as a challenge rather than as an occasion for despair. 

Conclusion 

What is, perhaps, the keenest satisfaction to the State Director 
and his associates is the way the workers over the State regard their 
part in the Campaign. One of the leading field workers said at the 
end of the Campaign that he considered that he had accomplished 
more good in 1918 in War Savings work than in any previous year 
of his life. A County Chairman, whose county oversubscribed its 
allotment, refers to the Campaign as a great blessing to his County. 
Another chairman, speaking of the effect of the Campaign upon the 
children, said, "I believe the children of this day will become a more 
loyal and dependable manhood and womanhood than they would 
otherwise have done." Still another chairman says that War Savings 
"opened a new era" where War Savings Societies were organized in 
in the schools. 

What a privilege it was to participate in a Campaign that made 
one of its most consistent workers, a County Chairman, express the 
following sentiment: "I want to say that my work for War Savings 
has meant more to me than anything I ever undertook. It made me 
learn my county and her people, and the sacrifices that the great majority 
of my workers made in doing the actual work filled me with pride." 

The End. 



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Winston-Salem, N. C. 






UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 




00032771714 



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